Browsing by Author "Mostert, Hanri"
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- ItemOpen AccessA legal perspective on the role of municipalities in navigating the relationship between land use planning and mining(2019) Van Schalkwyk, Catherine Louie; Mostert, HanriThe legislative and executive powers dealing with mining and land use respectively are allocated to different spheres of government. Mining rights are issued by the Department of Mineral Resources (DMR), as representative of the national government, whereas land use and zoning are regulated by municipalities, the local sphere of government. According to a 2012 ruling by the Constitutional Court of South Africa, a mining right holder cannot commence mining activities, despite holding the mining right, unless and until the land is appropriately zoned by the municipality in whose jurisdiction the land is located. The separate functions of the two spheres of government make duplication in application processes inevitable. The potential for conflicting decisions is also apparent. This project aims to determine how alignment of the respective processes of obtaining a mining right and land use approval can provide for better co-operation between the responsible government authorities. This question translates into two sub-inquiries: a) How do municipalities currently regulate land use for mining purposes? b) Should municipal rezoning procedures be incorporated into the application process for mining rights? These issues are considered by examining three selected municipalities’ rezoning procedures and policies and comparing these to the requirements of mining right applications. The thesis investigates the extent to which these procedures overlap and are duplicated. Potential policy changes are explored, to suggest streamlining application processes by providing a more cohesive solution. The three selected municipalities are the City of Cape Town Municipality in the Western Cape Province, the Sol Plaatje Municipality in the Northern Cape Province and the City of uMhlathuze Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal Province. The thesis shows how poor intergovernmental relations and processes hamper effective co-operation and collaboration between the DMR and municipalities. While it is imperative that each government institution retains legislative and executive authority over their respective constitutional powers – DMR over mining activities, and municipalities over land use issues – the thesis argues that greater efforts at process alignment or synchronisation are necessary. It offers suggestions for improvement.
- ItemOpen AccessAdvancing the effective implementation of the one environmental system for mining through cooperative environmental governance(2020) Mpinga, Shamila; Mostert, HanriIn 2014, the One Environmental System for mining came into effect. This legislative framework was introduced to streamline the environmental regulation of mining activities by consolidating such regulation in the National Environmental Management Act (NEMA). The most significant aspect of the regulatory framework, for purposes of this research, is the allocation of powers to the authorities responsible for implementing the One Environmental System. The authorities tasked with implementing the One Environmental System are the Department of Mineral Resources and Energy (DMRE), the Department of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries (DEFF) and the Department of Human Settlements, Water and Sanitation (DHWS). In the distribution of power, the DMRE is tasked with enforcing the regulatory framework in the minerals extraction industry. The DEFF sets the regulatory framework and is the appeal authority for decisions taken by the DMRE. Finally, the DHWS is responsible for regulating and enforcing the National Water Act. Although introducing the One Environmental System has improved the regulation of the environment in relation to mining, its regulation - and, more so, enforcement - has received more criticism than praise. Intragovernmental fragmentation has been cited as a cause of ineffective implementation of the regulatory framework. A lack of cooperation between the departments hampers the objective of streamlining the environmental regulation of mining. Therefore, it is imperative that the authorised departments cooperate with each other to achieve the effective implementation of the One Environmental System for mining. The aim of this dissertation is to suggest ways to foster cooperation between the DMRE, DEFF and DHWS to achieve the effective implementation of the One Environmental System. This goal is achieved by providing an analysis of the implementation efforts of the three departments. Since the analysis shows that intragovernmental fragmentation has hampered the effective implementation of the regulatory framework, this research provides recommendations to improve the implementation of the One Environmental System.
- ItemOpen AccessBenefit-sharing of proceeds from minerals: a legal analysis of the shortfalls of Tanzania's new Mining Laws and Regulations on Beneficiation(2021) Mussa, Ahmed; Mostert, Hanri; Cramer Richard HenryBeneficiation is the process whereby minerals undergo value addition before exportation. For the beneficiation process to be successful, it must be regulated effectively by legislation. The United Republic of Tanzania (Tanzania), being a resource-rich country, enacted new mining laws and regulations to improve mining activities' economic benefits. However, Tanzania continuously fails to realise the intended purpose of the new mining laws and regulations, particularly in respect of benefit sharing. The bottom line is that this country fails to acquire a fair share of its mineral resource benefits. This dissertation argues that the beneficiation of minerals is one way to enhance a host nation's economic benefits from exploiting its mineral resources. The dissertation analyses the new Tanzanian mining laws and regulations on beneficiation and discusses their shortfalls. First, this dissertation inquires how the new Tanzanian mining laws and regulations promoted minerals' beneficiation as a benefit-sharing enhancement mechanism. Second, this dissertation inquires how Tanzania can improve these laws to ensure an increased share of benefits from mineral activities. This dissertation argues that the new Tanzanian mining laws and regulations have shortfalls and practical challenges on beneficiation. This dissertation offers recommendations to the Tanzanian government to carry out beneficiation to develop Tanzania and its citizens.
- ItemOpen AccessBridging the gap between conservation and land reform : communally-conserved areas as a tool for managing South Africa's natural commons(2011) Paterson, Alexander R; Mostert, HanriThis dissertation examines whether the concept of communally-conserved areas provides a useful tool for bridging the current apparent impasse between South Africa’s conservation and land reform agendas.
- ItemOpen AccessConsultation and consent under the MPRDA and the IPILRA: a legal analysis of the decision-making practices of customary communities in South Africa(2021) Ntsanwisi, Fezeka; Mostert, Hanri; Cramer Richard HenryUnder the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act 28 of 2002 (MPRDA), the State, as custodian of mineral resources, has the authority to grant rights to minerals and permits in favour of applicants that satisfy the requirements of the prescribed application procedures. Applicants for rights to minerals and permits must consult meaningfully with landowners and lawful occupiers, although the MPRDA itself does not require the latter's prior consent. The Interim Protection of Informal Land Rights Act 31 of 1996 (IPILRA), by contrast, requires prior consent when persons are deprived of their informal rights to land. In South Africa, communities that occupy land under customary land tenure are recognised as lawful occupiers that have informal rights to land. The occupation of land by customary communities and the applicant's interest to exploit mineral resources creates competing rights and interests between these two parties, namely: a right to consultation and a right of access to land. This minor dissertation aims to analyse the impact that the current statutory formulation of the requirements of consultation and consent has on the informal rights to land held by customary communities. This aim translates into two sub-inquiries: How do the statutorily required processes of consultation and consent embodied in the MPRDA and the IPILRA protect the informal rights to land held by customary communities? Furthermore, do the statutorily required processes of consultation and consent meaningfully engage with the existing decision-making practices of customary communities? These issues are considered in light of the elevated status that customary law enjoys under South African law and the Constitution's aspiration to reform racially discriminatory landholding systems. The dissertation argues that the statutorily required processes of consultation and consent inadequately engage with the existing decision-making practices of customary communities. It offers insight on how engagement with the existing decision-making practices, and with the Free, Prior and Informed Consent principle, can better accommodate and protect the rights and interests of customary communities that are affected by prospecting and mining operations.
- ItemOpen AccessEmpowerment through mine community development: how the politics of development perpetuate poverty in mining areas – a legal theoretical analysis(2020) Heyns, Anri; Mostert, HanriThe Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act (“MPRDA”) and the Broad-Based Socio-Economic Empowerment Charter for the South African Mining and Minerals Industry (“Mining Charter”), created in terms of the MPRDA, aim to address the exploitative legacies of past discriminatory practices in the mining industry. Impoverished mining communities stand to benefit from empowerment under the Mining Charter in the form of mine community development – one of the elements that constitute a mining right holder's commitment under the Mining Charter. Despite this legislative intervention and the relative wealth generated by the extraction of mineral resources, poverty and conflict have become the stereotypical images associated with mining areas. This project aims to determine why the empowerment of mining communities through mine community development perpetuates poverty from the past and creates new inequalities. To answer this main question, it is considered how the historical context within which the relevant policy and legislation were created, affected legislative drafting. Second, the effects of promoting development and empowerment in legislative provisions are explored to determine which worldviews and underlying values are being promoted by the legislative instruments under discussion. Furthermore, it is considered how these worldviews and underlying values affect how mining communities, subjected to harsh socio-economic living conditions, are depicted in legislative provisions. Here, it is specifically considered what the notion of “community” signifies in a development context and how “community” is represented in legislation. The thesis is a theoretical exposition of the ideological assumptions underlying the concepts “development”, “empowerment”, “community” and “poverty”. It is shown that “mine community development” is an inherently contradictory notion in South African law. The development paradigm implies the universalisation of values, effectively creating “the poor”, and causing vagueness and paradoxes. It results not only in a perpetuation of poverty and inequality from the past but also in the creation of new inequalities, as is evident in the differentiation drawn by the Mining Charter between different types of communities in mining areas. Measures currently being enforced by the legislation under discussion, are in desperate need of reconsideration.
- ItemOpen AccessEngaged Citizenship and the enabling state as factors determining the interference parameter of property: A comparison of German and South African Law(2010) Mostert, HanriSince its conception, the idea of constitutional property protection and regulation in South Africa has been an academically captivating issue.1 At first, politicians negotiated whether the Constitution should protect vested private property interests and contribute to the goals of political reform, and how such a compromise could be achieved.2 Simultaneously, academics flexed their comparativist muscles, contemplating which of the prominent models of constitutional property protection encountered worldwide would lend itself best to adaptation for South Africa.
- ItemOpen AccessIntegrating land administration systems in peri-urban customary areas in Ghana(2018) Obeng, Williams; Whittal, Jennifer; Mostert, HanriDual land administration systems operate in many peri-urban customary areas in subSaharan Africa (Burns, 2007), yet the rationality behind them is different, and possibly conflicting (Watson, 2003). The conflicting rationalities between the dual systems have created binaries in land administration discourse. Some scholars have promoted statutory land administration systems over customary systems (Hardin, 1968). Many pre-21st century land administration systems theories were purely economy-based, and sought to discredit customary land administration and tenure systems (De Soto, 2000; Peters, 2009). The weaknesses of customary land administration and tenure systems have been widely articulated in economy-based land administration literature (Demsetz,1967). However, recent research findings seem to suggest that peri-urban customary land management could improve through hybrid land administration, incorporating both customary and statutory systems (Whittal, 2014). In this study, statutory and customary land administration systems are examined to understand how they can be integrated to improve effective land delivery at the peri-urban interface in Ghana. A case study analysis of hybrid forms of land administration was undertaken, using both primary and secondary data. Relatively successful case studies (from Ghana and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa) were deliberately chosen to learn good ways of managing peri-urban customary land. Land administration practices in such areas were assessed using the good land governance framework. The case study analysis reveals that hybrid land administration systems are appropriate in enhancing livelihood sustainability and tenure security of the local people. To this end, the study proposes some improvements in hybrid land administration practices to reduce conflicting rationalities between customary and statutory land administration systems.
- ItemOpen AccessLocal content requirements in the South African extractives sector: Do South Africa's local content requirements for the mineral and mining sector promote foreign direct investment?(2022) Wheeler, Keanan Shane; Mostert, Hanri; Cramer, Richard HenryThe South African Government has an interest in ensuring that South Africa derives benefit from the exploitation of its natural resources. In the South African mineral and mining industry, this interest extends to the proceeds acquired from participation therein. Participation in the mineral and mining industry, however, is high risk, capital intensive and often has long lead times from exploration to production. Due to these factors, exploiting South Africa's mineral resources with recourse to purely domestic financing, expertise and/or equipment is challenging, if not impossible. Therefore, the industry requires capital, investment, and input from foreign sources, namely by way of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). To ensure that foreign participation in its mineral and mining industry allows for domestic benefit, and that said benefit is enhanced in accordance with its policy objectives, the South African Government has formulated and imposed Local Content Requirements (LCRs) for the industry. This dissertation analyses the question of whether the LCRs formulated and imposed in the South African mineral and mining industry promote the attraction of FDI. The argument made is that the overarching factor influencing the decision to invest in the South African mineral and mining industry is certainty. Pursuant thereto, this dissertation argues that, as presently formulated and implemented, the LCRs applicable to the South African mineral and mining industry do not ensure certainty and, accordingly, do not promote the attraction of FDI. In the light of this conclusion, this dissertation offers two recommendations to the South African Government to enhance certainty in respect of the LCRs applicable to the South African mineral and mining industry for the purpose of promoting the attraction of FDI.
- ItemOpen AccessPolicy harmonisation, regional integration and energy security: the participation of independent power producers in the Sub-Saharan African energy sector(2019) Pailman, Kelsey Amy; Mostert, HanriThe United Nations Sustainable Development Goal Seven (SDG 7) promotes access to 'affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all’. Sub-Saharan Africa is however characterised by high levels of energy insecurity. Regional integration is a way in which energy security in the region can be achieved through the sharing of resources, infrastructure and expertise. Electricity trade in Sub-Saharan takes place primarily through the Southern African Power Pool. The Power Pool consists of 13 member countries that import and export electricity across transmission infrastructure. Regional integration is however hampered by unreliable state-owned centralised grids. Many grids in sub-Saharan Africa do not have sufficient energy generation capacity for regional trade. Independent Power Producers (IPPs) promote regional integration and energy security by increasing a country’s energy generation capacity and diversifying its energy mix through renewable energy sources. Sub-Saharan Africa currently lacks a harmonised policy framework on the participation of IPPs in national energy markets. This thesis argues that a harmonised policy framework on IPP participation on a national level can increase electricity trade and energy security regionally.
- ItemOpen AccessThe power of the court to grant alternative accommodation orders: an investigation into when an alternative accommodation order as a condition to the eviction of unlawful occupiers in terms of PIE would comply with the court's constitutional mandate(2017) Fick, Sarah Johanna; Mostert, HanriIn an eviction matter, the court is required to consider all relevant circumstances and grant an order that is just and equitable. An important relevant circumstance to be considered is whether the unlawful occupiers have alternative accommodation. Courts are reluctant to grant eviction orders that would leave the unlawful occupiers homeless. In matters where unlawful occupiers are unable to secure their own alternative accommodation, courts often look to the state to provide alternative accommodation. Courts have ordered the state to provide alternative accommodation to the unlawful occupiers in certain cases as a condition of the eviction order (an alternative accommodation order). This thesis seeks to determine when an alternative accommodation order as a condition to the eviction of unlawful occupiers in terms of the Prevention of Illegal Eviction From and Unlawful Occupation of Land Act 19 of 1998 (PIE) would comply with the court's constitutional mandate. Two criteria are determined against which to test whether alternative accommodation orders comply with the court's constitutional mandate. First, the court's constitutional mandate requires that its orders adhere to the existing legal framework. Second, the court's constitutional mandate requires that its orders respect the functions of the branches of government. An alternative accommodation order would only adhere to the legal framework if there is a valid ground for placing this duty on the state. The possible grounds for holding the state liable relate to its constitutional duty to respect, protect, promote and fulfil human rights. One possible ground relates to the state's duty to fulfil the unlawful occupiers' right of access to adequate housing by implementing reasonable short-term housing programmes. Hence, whether the state has a duty to accommodate the unlawful occupiers within its short-term housing programme is a relevant circumstance to be considered by the court. A finding that the state has a duty to accommodate the unlawful occupiers, immediately, is likely to lead to an eviction with an order against the state to provide alternative accommodation, regardless of the other circumstances. If the state does not have a duty to accommodate the unlawful occupiers immediately in terms of its duty to fulfil human rights, its liability to provide alternative accommodation might still be found on its duty to respect and protect human rights. This is because, under some circumstances, the granting of an eviction order that results in homelessness might violate the rights of the unlawful occupiers, whereas a denial of the eviction or a delay in the granting or execution of an eviction order might violate the rights of the landowner. Placing the duty on the state to prevent or mitigate the violation by compensating either of the parties could be justified due to the state's duty to respect and protect human rights. As an alternative to compensation, a court could order the state to provide alternative accommodation to the unlawful occupiers. These two possible grounds for alternative accommodation orders are analysed to determine when alternative accommodation orders based on these grounds would adhere to the existing legal framework and respect the functions of the branches of government. These grounds are likely to have the same outcome. For both grounds, certain factors weigh heavily against an alternative accommodation order: blameworthiness on the part of the unlawful occupiers, a lack of blameworthiness on the part of the state, a finding that the state's limited resources should rather be spent on others who are needier or more deserving. In the conclusion of the thesis, recommendations are made regarding two problem areas in granting alternative accommodation orders in eviction matters - the availability of state resources and the burden of proof.
- ItemOpen AccessPublic trusteeship and water management: developing the South African concept of public trusteeship to improve management of water resources in the context of South African water law(2014) Young, Cheri-Leigh; Mostert, HanriSouth Africa is faced with extraordinary challenges when it comes to managing its water resources. To redress the results of discrimination caused by Apartheid and its political antecedents, the modern constitutional state sought to address the issues of access to water resources and sanitation services by introducing section 24 of the Constitution, which provides for the right to an environment that is not harmful to one's health or well-being. In addition, section 27 seeks to entrench the right of access to sufficient water. Consequently, the National Water Act 36 of 1998 was introduced, which caters for the administration of water resources. The Water Services Act 108 of 1997, which seeks to ensure the provision of water and sanitation services completes the statutory framework. This framework provides for the state to be either the trustee or the custodian of our water resources. However, the terms 'trustee' and 'custodian' are not defined by either statutes. The legal framework nevertheless sets the parameters for state trusteeship and/or custodianship. This may be gleaned from the constitutional provisions, the National Water Act and the Water Services Act, as well as their accompanying regulations and policies. Despite oversights and inconsistencies, it is argued, the legislative framework very clearly provides the statutory content of trusteeship and custodianship. The state is expected to manage water in accordance with the prescribed constitutional mandate. The nature of the terminology used in the legislation has prompted a comparison by academic authors of modern trusteeship with the Roman and Roman-Dutch law classifications of res publicae. Alternatively, the public trust doctrine has been used as a comparator for evaluating the functioning of trusteeship. However, there are numerous problems with both of these comparisons. Neither facilitates a clear, meaningful understanding of trusteeship or custodianship. The thesis set out here is that, as trusteeship and custodianship are both statutory creatures, the nature of their content must be sought in the legal framework itself. In particular, the National Water Resource Strategy provides insight into the duties of the state. The Strategy aims to give effect to this legal framework, and provides that there are three values that water management aims to achieve: sustainability, equity and efficiency.
- ItemOpen AccessRegulation of the upstream petroleum industry. A comparative analysis and evaluation of the regulatory frameworks of South Africa and Namibia(2015) van den Berg, Hugo Meyer; Mostert, HanriControversy surrounds the upstream petroleum industry. Although the benefit of petroleum resources is beyond dispute, the exploitation of petroleum resources comes at a price, as history has shown time and again. Not only does petroleum exploitation have detrimental effects on the environment, but host countries often are worse off than countries with little or no petroleum resources. This "resource curse" is partially the result of flawed regulatory frameworks for petroleum resource extraction in host countries. This thesis identifies three elements that must be present in a country's regulatory framework for petroleum extraction if the resource curse phenomenon is to be avoided and benefit s from petroleum are to be maximised. These elements are: transparency, accountability and a balance of interests between the petroleum companies and the host nation. Namibia and South Africa are not yet major players in the international upstream petroleum industry. There is accordingly not much academic engagement with petroleum law in these two jurisdictions. The courts have also not yet had the opportunity to scrutinise the legislation regulating the upstream petroleum industries of South Africa and Namibia. There are, however, indications that both countries may possess viable quantities of petroleum resources. In anticipation of the possibility of finding commercially viable quantities of petroleum, South Africa and Namibia have enacted legislation to regulate the upstream petroleum industry, but the efficiency of the legislation, specifically how it reflects the elements of transparency, accountability and balance of interest, have not yet been considered. The research for this thesis is driven by the question of how the regulatory framework for petroleum exploitation in South Africa and Namibia embraces the elements of transparency, accountability and balance of interest. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the regulatory frameworks for upstream petroleum resources in South Africa and Namibia in anticipation of the demands that will be placed on law as the sectors grow. In doing so, this thesis scrutinises the legislation in South Africa and Namibia to determine the extent to which the three crucial elements of transparency, accountability and balance of interest between the petroleum company and the host nation are reflected in the regulatory frameworks for petroleum resources.
- ItemOpen AccessRethinking enclave development in view of the African mining vision (AMV): lessons for the social and labour plan system(2019) Ncube, Vuyisile; Mostert, HanriA Social and Labour Plan (‘SLP’) contains the comprehensive development programmes that a mining right holder must create and implement to benefit a mining affected community. An application for a mining right must be accompanied by an SLP. Additionally, SLPs must contain development programmes that address human resources and local economic development. This dissertation considers whether the SLP System perpetuates an enclave approach to development (‘enclave development’). Enclave development occurs where mining companies develop physical infrastructure, such as roads and electricity, to support their extraction of natural resources. The definition relied on in this dissertation goes a step further to include the implementation of social programs that only target specific areas surrounding mining operations. Assuming that the SLP system indeed perpetuates enclave development, the dissertation also inquires whether this can be remedied with reference to the African Mining Vision (‘AMV’). The hypothesis that the SLP System perpetuates enclave development was initially borne out of the Marikana Commission of Inquiry, which revealed issues with a British mining company’s SLP compliance. Relying on an enclave development approach is particularly problematic in South Africa, as it neglects the development of labour-sending areas and other poor communities that happen to be far from mining operations. By considering the AMV, it becomes evident that elements of the AMV’s proposed strategy of Resource-based Industrialisation are being pursued in South African mineral law and policies. The issue then arises whether the AMV can provide insight. Is it the case that South Africa has not yet seen the benefits of pursuing a Resource-based Industrialisation (‘RBI’) strategy because government is yet to maximise its implementation? Alternatively, are the critiques levelled against the AMV’s RBI strategy valid, hence its inability to speak to the South African SLP System? The critiques levelled against an RBI strategy are that: (a) it perpetuates the colonial model of resource extraction (thus explaining why South Africans fail to see the positive impact of this industrialisation strategy) and (b) it fails to address the negative social and environmental costs of pursuing a minerals based industrialisation strategy. Were one to support the argument that South Africa should work towards the full implementation of an RBI strategy, then the AMV’s proposal of localising the benefits of mining are appealing. The AMV proposes that a government establishes clear fiscal linkages with mining operations, that there be a clear revenue distribution system and the establishment of a Sovereign Wealth Fund. The development of fiscal linkages and a clear revenue distribution system would enable government to re-invest and distribute the revenue to local government, so that labour sending areas and poor communities benefit from mining. The portion of the revenue from mining would be invested into a Sovereign Wealth Fund and the revenue would ensure future generations also benefit from mining. The above approach, to localising the benefits of mining as opposed to relying on SLPs, returns primary responsibility for ensuring social development to the South African government. Governments are inherently far better capable than mining companies at ensuring far reaching social development and promoting socio-economic development. This dissertation concludes by asserting that at a theoretical level, although the AMV does provide insight that could potentially curtail the perpetuation of enclave development by the SLP System, whether these insights are worth implementing, and whether they can be implemented by the South African government, in the light of the compelling critiques levelled against the AMV’s RBI strategy needs further research.
- ItemOpen AccessSafeguarding rights of mining communities in South Africa: an analysis of the legal mechanisms in force with a particular focus on community development agreements(2021) Mugo, Tabitha Muthoni; Mostert, Hanri; Cramer, Richard HenryThe benefits of Mineral resources must be distributed equitably and sustainably among all mining stakeholders including mining communities. Sustainable mining practices extend to the promotion of socio-economic development of local communities affected by mining activities. Mining communities often bear the brunt of the negative effects of mining, which include environmental degradation and interruption of social and cultural norms. In recent times, mining communities have increasingly raised concerns and complaints in opposition to the commencement of mining projects or ongoing mining projects where mining companies have failed to fulfil their end of the bargain. For example, in South Africa, the unrest leading to the unfortunate events at Marikana in 2012 led to significant scrutiny on the role of mining companies in the socio-economic development of mine labourers and mining communities. In particular, the effectiveness of Social and Labour Plans was brought under scrutiny. Additionally, the Constitutional Court has recently adjudicated cases relating to the relationship between mining companies and mining communities whereby the need for meaningful consultation with mining communities before the grant of a mining license was emphasized. This dissertation analyses whether the legal framework in South Africa adequately safeguards the rights of mining communities. Further, it considers whether the mechanisms put in place in the mining legal and regulatory framework, for example, the requirement of consultation with interested and affected parties, sufficiently protect mining communities. A proposal is made for the incorporation of Community Development Agreements into the legal framework to safeguard mining community rights for the following reasons. First, the agreement provides legally binding obligations for both parties. Secondly, it serves a powerful mechanism in sharing the benefits of mining. Thirdly, it provides a clear structure for the mitigation of some of the negative impacts of mining through socio-economic development of mining communities.
- ItemOpen AccessSetting the Tone for Corporate Social Responsibility in Kenya- What Does the New Mining Act Have to Say?(2018) Cowell, Kelly; Mostert, HanriMotivated by the abundance of unexploited natural resources within Kenya, the country released a new Mining Act in 2016. The proclaimed objective, to increase mineral contribution from one percent to ten percent of Kenya’s GDP by 2030, demonstrates governmental focus on enticing investment in the mineral sector. Historically, a primary focus on investment potential in developing countries exposed to sudden mineral booms, is likely to lead to social and environmental destruction. It is therefore important to evaluate the status of Kenya’s new mineral law, and what that means for the country’s ability to foster a sustainable future. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is discussed in relation to international norms and standards. Kenya’s Constitution and new Mining Act are then examined to identify what safeguards ensure social and environmental protection. While many countries have voluntary CSR mechanisms, Kenya’s Mining Act contains mandatory CSR procedures and regulations. Should Kenya fail to ensure these laws are adhered to within the spirit of the Constitution, there will be negative consequences for the country. Whether there is sufficient governmental willpower, combined with the necessary human and technological resources, to maintain and enforce the established laws is yet to be determined.
- ItemOpen AccessShale gas and hydraulic fracturing in South Africa: towards a petroleum legal framework that provides for innovative technologies that support energy security of supply and mitigate climate change(2023) Sayidini, Bongani; Mostert, HanriIt is estimated that South Africa contains vast amounts of shale gas. Meanwhile, the country relies heavily on coal as a primary energy source, as a result, it ranks amongst the highest carbon dioxide emitting countries globally, therefore is a significant contributor to climate change. Climate change is a cause for global concern, if not mitigated it will cause more severe devastation to societies worldwide. The exploitation of shale gas in South Africa will require the use of hydraulic fracturing, a technology that has generated controversy globally. The country however does not have an effective legal framework to regulate the exploration and production of shale gas using this technology. This thesis investigates whether South Africa's petroleum legal framework provides adequately for the protection of the environment against the risks posed by shale gas development. It posits that with a petroleum legal framework premised on avoiding, mitigating, and remediating environmental damage, shale gas could be developed in an environmentally sensible manner in South Africa, to enhance energy security of supply while reducing the country's carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. The assessment employs the comparative legal research methodology and uses the prevention principle (avoidance), precautionary principle (mitigation), and polluter pays principle (remediation) as comparative themes. The comparative jurisdictions are South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Canada. The United Kingdom and Canada are more mature petroleum provinces/jurisdictions, therefore, have relatively advanced legal frameworks for petroleum extraction. The study finds that these principles are already embedded in the South African environmental legal framework. Therefore, the appropriate petroleum legal framework to guide shale gas development in South Africa would be one that provides for the rigorous application of these principles, in an integrated and complementary manner, with close monitoring and enforcement. The capacity of the relevant regulatory agencies will have to be enhanced to ensure effective compliance monitoring and enforcement.
- ItemOpen AccessSouth Africa's Stolen Gold: a legal analysis of the impact of illegal mining on South Africas national security(2022) Dyan, Comet Inga; Mostert, Hanri; Cramer, Richard HenryThe proliferation of illegal mining activities in South Africa costs the country's economy an estimated R10 billion a year. Illegal mining activities further jeopardise the future of South Africa's economic development perspective, which is outlined in the National Development Plan (NDP) and highlights the need to eliminate poverty and reduce inequality. Therefore, this posits illegal mining activities as national security threats as they compromise the government's strategic planning programme and directly impact all sectors of security analysis for a modern state: the military, economic, political, social, and environmental sectors. The current fragmented approaches to combat illegal mining activities and the short-sightedness of mining legislation will continue to exacerbate the impact and spread of these activities, from primarily abandoned mines to operational mines. Hence, any real plan to combat illegal mining activities successfully needs a coordinated approach that involves all stakeholders within the mining industry and the security sector, focusing on the key drivers of this highly organised and global illicit economy. In addition, the South African government will need a well thought out policy development strategy that speaks to the future needs of South Africa's mining industry, which may include artisanal mining as a form of an inclusive economic development policy programme. This dissertation briefly explores all the elements mentioned above of South Africa's illegal mining problem. This paper emphasises policy failures and government strategies that have largely ignored the security of the country's mineral resources as they lie on the surface and subsurface of the earth, specifically in abandoned and derelict mines.
- ItemOpen AccessStrengthening decision-making processes to promote water sustainability in the South African mining context: the role of good environmental governance and the law(University of Cape Town, 2020) Kengni, Bernard; Mostert, Hanri; Young, Cheri-LeighThis thesis examines whether the concept of good (environmental) governance provides a useful tool and legal base for the achievement of water sustainability in South Africa's mining sector. The thesis introduces water pollution as one sustainability challenge that South Africa is facing in its mining sector. The main question is how the legal framework should promote and guide water sustainability through good environmental governance. The question results from the fact that mining is a constant threat to water resources. Mining is one of the leading causes of water pollution which adversely affects human life among others when water contaminated with heavy metals is consumed. Farming, as an essential component of food security, is under constant threat in places like Mpumalanga as soils are rendered less productive by mine-contaminated water infiltrating from topsoil or rising from underground mines. Similarly, polluted water adversely affects biodiversity, thus, destroying ecosystems and vegetation which serve as livestock feed. The analysis of sustainability, governance and good governance theories and specific concepts underpinning them shows that they can inform water protection in the South African mining sector. Sustainability, found to be a broad and interdisciplinary concept, is a necessary guideline for the pursuit of water governance in the mining sector. Despite conflicting perceptions or facts regarding sustainability, it is evident that for water to be preserved, sustainable practices are essential. This requires mining activities to be conducted while always minimising the occurrence of water pollution to ensure water sustainability in the South African mining sector. The thesis also expounds that water sustainability pursued through governance practices is likely to be effective in alleviating or preventing water concerns. Thus, the concept of governance is presented as a tool with which individuals or organisations can achieve effective water sustainability, through decision-making, planning and law enforcement. Governance as a concept is complex, multifaceted and interdisciplinary, but can ensure water sustainability and the wellbeing of members of society who depend on the natural environment. The thesis further highlights that water sustainability is more likely when pursued through governance in its best possible form. The concept of good environmental governance is therefore explained as a theory that can guide effective decisionmaking and serve as a tool at the disposal of interested and affected parties to judge the performance of administrative officials. Effective decision-making processes and its elements are to be promoted through cooperative governance, accountability, transparency and public participation, for effective administrative action. The thesis then analyses the South African legal framework and establishes that water governance in the mining sector is extensively catered for therein. The Constitution sets the water sustainability mandate based on which legislation is enacted, both followed by legal interpretation in the courts. The analysis, however, show that there are various shortcomings relating to the implementation and enforcement of the law through administrative action. Nevertheless, the analysis remains hopeful that water sustainability can still be achieved in the mining sector. Despite the existence of environmental provisions and various attempts to achieve water sustainability, the current South African legal framework still fails to control water pollution effectively. The failure may be attributed to the shortcomings of the said framework, but it is, to a larger extent, a result of poor implementation and enforcement. One main reason is less effective administrative action due to inefficient decision-making processes, which implies that the quality of governance regarding water protection in the mining sector is inadequate. Such findings show that water sustainability could have been achieved or improved if decisionmakers had relied fully on good governance principles to implement and enforce provisions aimed at water protection in the mining sector. Hence, this thesis finds that no new regulation is required; rather it suggests a reform of various provisions within the existing legal framework to improve water sustainability. This is subject to improved implementation and enforcement mechanisms.
- ItemOpen AccessThe 'formalisation dilemma' of artisanal and small-scale mining: an analysis with reference to the Democratic Republic of the Congo(2022) Pein, Rebecca-Lee; Mostert, HanriThis thesis contributes to the discussion about the impact and dynamics of the informal Artisanal and Small-scale Mining (ASM) sector in sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on the case of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The debate around ASM's informality in sub-Saharan Africa is increasingly gathering momentum in the region's development and donor dialogues. A unique sector populated by a heterogenous group of people, ASM has in recent years expanded rapidly around the globe. More and more countries are recognising the economic importance of the ASM sector, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, forcing many donors and policymakers to ‘reconsider' development strategies for ASM. With the growth in ASM, many countries have endeavoured to formalise their ASM sectors in hope of bringing ASM activities into the formal domain and in turn mitigating the negative consequences which flow therefrom. Despite these ASM-formalisation efforts, governments continue to face numerous obstacles along the way, with many of the artisanal miners continuing to operate illegally. The case study of the DRC provides an informative understanding of ASM's informality in sub-Saharan Africa and depicts the issues experienced by a country attempting to formalise its ASM sector. The DRC is one such country that has implemented legislation and introduced numerous initiatives to help bring its ASM sector into the formal domain. The unfortunate reality is that the country seems to be trapped in what this thesis terms the ‘formalisation dilemma', as thousands of artisanal miners continue to operate outside of the legal framework; a phenomenon which is not unique to the DRC experience. To date, most of the AMS-formalisation undertakings and support in sub-Saharan Africa have focused on the financial and technical aspects of the sector, with emphasis being placed on controlling ASM activities ad hoc, instead of proactively engaging and supporting ASM operations. This thesis examines the correlation between the rise in ASM activities and state or institutional failure and concludes by recommending various solutions to this so-called ‘formalisation dilemma'.