### Browsing by Author "Khan, Azeem"

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- ItemOpen AccessComparison of interior permanent magnet synchronous machines for a high-speed application(2018) Kalyan, Mohamedreza; Khan, AzeemPermanent Magnet machines have been increasingly used in high-speed applications due to the advantages they offer such as higher efficiency, output torque and, output power. This dissertation discusses the electrical and magnetic design of permanent magnet machines and the design and analysis of two 10 kW, 30000 rpm Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) machines. This dissertation consists of two parts: the first part discusses high-speed machine topologies, and in particular the permanent magnet machine. Trends, advantages, disadvantages, recent developments, etc. are discussed and conclusions are made. The second part presents the design, analysis and testing of interior permanent magnet machines for a high-speed application. The machines are designed from first principles and are simulated using Ansys Maxwell software to understand the finite element analysis. In order to obtain a fair comparison between the machines, the required output criteria was used as the judging criteria (10kW, 30000 rpm). As a result, the rotor diameter, stator diameter, airgap length, and stack length were kept the same for both machines. The winding configuration was set as distributed windings, however the number of turns and other details were kept flexible in order to be able to obtain the best design for each machine. Similarly, the magnet volume was kept flexible as this could be used as a comparison criteria relating to the cost of the machines. The two IPM topologies are compared with respect to their torque, magnetic field, airgap flux, core loss, efficiency, and cost. The radial IPM produces a smoother torque output, with lower torque ripple, and has lower losses compared to the circumferential IPM which produces a higher torque and power output. Furthermore, the circumferential IPM also experiences much higher torque ripple and core losses, both of which are highly undesirable characteristics for high-speed machines. In addition, the circumferential IPM has a much more complex manufacturing process compared to the radial IPM which would significantly increase the cost of prototyping the machine, thus the radial IPM was selected for prototyping and brief experimental analysis. The radial IPM has been experimentally tested under no-load conditions. These results were successfully compared to the simulated and analytical results to show correlation between the design and experimental process. Potential areas of further work may include conducting detailed loss analysis to understand the effects that changing various design parameters has on the core loss and overall performance. Detailed thermal and mechanical analysis of the machines may also result in interesting conclusions that would alter the design of the machine to make it more efficient.
- ItemOpen AccessDesign of a Vernier Permanent Magnet Wind Generator(2020) Dudley, Darren Richard; Khan, AzeemThe rise in popularity of renewable energy solutions, in particular wind energy systems, has resulted in a greater demand for low-speed direct-drive machines. The Vernier machine has inherent properties such as high torque density, sinusoidal induced voltages and low torque ripple which makes it suitable for low-speed direct-drive wind applications. Additionally, its mechanical structure is as simple as a conventional permanent magnet (PM) machine, whilst eliminating the need for a mechanical gearbox. The research problem addressed by this dissertation relates to the assessment of the Vernier permanent magnet (VPM) machine topology for direct-drive wind applications. It aims to outline a sizing, detailed design and analysis approach for a three-phase VPM wind generator. Furthermore, a comparative study is conducted using two different rotor types and two different stator types, namely; spoke-type and surface-mounted and fractional slot and integral slot respectively. Vernier theory is used to size the designs after which 2D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulations are used to analyse and validate the designs. The main outcome of the comparative study is an assessment of the suitability of four topologies for the direct-drive wind application. The design is assessed on parameters which are critical for wind turbine functionality; namely efficiency, torque ripple, torque density and material consumption. The most suitable of the topologies is selected for prototyping. The rotor is made more robust by adding structural features which mechanically secure laminations and PMs to the shaft. The FEA analysis of the prototype showed favourable performance characteristics, albeit with a small cost in power density. The prototype was -thus manufactured with further mechanical reinforcements made to the bearing system. Experimental results reveal the presence of a defect in the windings. Parameters which are dependent on the winding design are much lower than the analytical and FEA values. These parameters include resistance, inductance, and back-EMF. Further work should look into determining the root cause of the prototype defects.
- ItemOpen AccessDesign study and analysis of a conventional radial-field flux-switching permanent magnet machine for a medium-speed wind turbine(2021) Pretorius, Dewald; Khan, AzeemA conventional radial-field FSPM machine was designed and studied. The research focussed on the effectiveness of using a parametric study to obtain an optimized solution compared to using a computerized optimizer; as well as an in-depth core loss analysis. The designing process started with an analytical design that was used for initial design purposes, and this was followed by numerical simulations to get an optimized solution. Within the numerical simulations, the parametric analysis and optimization were performed. The final optimized design was designed to be manufactured and compared to both the analytical and numerical results for validation. The analytical and numerical results were obtained using MathWorks MATLAB 2019a and Ansys Maxwell 19.1 respectively. The results show that an optimizer is more effective in finding an optimized solution in the design space, however, the parametric analyses are still useful in order to determine the design regions for the optimizer and how sensitive certain parameters are towards the FSPM machine's performance. In the end, these analyses are used to speed up the design process by minimizing computational time, and also provides an understanding to the designer of parameter changes on the FSPM machine's performance.
- ItemOpen AccessDevelopment of a DFIG wind energy system for grid integration studies(2013) D'Oliveira Pio, Manuela Maria Amilha; Khan, Azeem; Barendse, PaulDoubly Fed Induction Generators (DFIGs) are common for use in wind power generation. This can be attributed to factors such as the variable speed operation of the rotor, which can be adjusted through control systems with varying wind speed, ensuring more efficient power conversion.The stator windings in a DFIG are directly connected to the grid while the rotor windings are connected to the grid via back to back converters. This allows for independent active and reactive power control through the rotor side convertor and lower rating of converter which leads to lower cost of the system. The system below is a schematic of experimental set-up of the doubly fed induction generator connected to the grid.
- ItemOpen AccessDevelopment of a multilevel converter topology for transformer-less connection of renewable energy systems(2023) Ajayi-Obe, Akinola Ayodeji; Khan, AzeemThe global need to reduce dependence on fossil fuels for electricity production has become an ongoing research theme in the last decade. Clean energy sources (such as wind energy and solar energy) have considerable potential to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and mitigate climate change. However, wind energy is going to become more mainstream due to technological advancement and geographical availability. Therefore, various technologies exist to maximize the inherent advantages of using wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) to generate electrical power. One important technology is the power electronics interface that enables the transfer and effective control of electrical power from the renewable energy source to the grid through the filter and isolation transformer. However, the transformer is bulky, generates losses, and is also very costly. Therefore, the term "transformer-less connection" refers to eliminating a step-up transformer from the WECS, while the power conversion stage performs the conventional functions of a transformer. Existing power converter configurations for transformer-less connection of a WECS are either based on the generator-converter configuration or three-stage power converter configuration. These configurations consist of conventional multilevel converter topologies and two-stage power conversion between the generator-side converter topology and the high-order filter connected to the collection point of the wind power plant (WPP). Thus, the complexity and cost of these existing configurations are significant at higher voltage and power ratings. Therefore, a single-stage multilevel converter topology is proposed to simplify the power conversion stage of a transformer-less WECS. Furthermore, the primary design challenges â€“ such as multiple clamping devices, multiple dc-link capacitors, and series-connected power semiconductor devices â€“ have been mitigated by the proposed converter topology. The proposed converter topology, known as the "tapped inductor quasi-Z-source nested neutral-point-clamped (NNPC) converter," has been analyzed, and designed, and a prototype of the topology developed for experimental verification. A field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based modulation technique and voltage balancing control technique for maintaining the clamping capacitor voltages was developed. Hence, the proposed converter topology presents a single-stage power conversion configuration. Efficiency analysis of the proposed converter topology has been studied and compared to the intermediate and grid-side converter topology of a three-stage power converter configuration. A direct current (DC) component minimization technique to minimize the dc component generated by the proposed converter topology was investigated, developed, and verified experimentally. The proposed dc component minimization technique consists of a sensing and measurement circuitry with a digital notch filter. This thesis presents a detailed and comprehensive overview of the existing power converter configurations developed for transformer-less WECS applications. Based on the developed 2 comparative benchmark factor (CBF), the merits and demerits of each power converter configuration in terms of the component counts and grid compliance have been presented. In terms of cost comparison, the three-stage power converter configuration is more cost-effective than the generatorconverter configuration. Furthermore, the cost-benefit analysis of deploying a transformer-less WECSs in a WPP is evaluated and compared with conventional WECS in a WPP based on power converter configurations and collection system. Overall, the total cost of the collection system of WPP with transformer-less WECSs is about 23% less than the total cost of WPP with conventional WECs. The derivation and theoretical analysis of the proposed five-level tapped inductor quasi-Z-source NNPC converter topology have been presented, emphasizing its operating principles, steady-state analysis, and deriving equations to calculate its inductance and capacitance values. Furthermore, the FPGA implementation of the proposed converter topology was verified experimentally with a developed prototype of the topology. The efficiency of the proposed converter topology has been evaluated by varying the switching frequency and loads. Furthermore, the proposed converter topology is more efficient than the five-level DC-DC converter with a five-level diode-clamped converter (DCC) topology under the three-stage power converter configuration. Also, the cost analysis of the proposed converter topology and the conventional converter topology shows that it is more economical to deploy the proposed converter topology at the grid side of a transformer-less WECS.
- ItemOpen AccessDevelopment of a System for Testing Grid-connected Doubly Fed Induction Generators with Implementation of a Three-level Neutral-Point-clamped Converter(2018) Hu, Xiao Ming; Khan, AzeemConsistent international efforts have been made over the past few decades to move the world towards an environmentally sustainable society. Wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) are one of the largest contributors within this movement. Furthermore amongst existing wind turbine power generation technologies, the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) has been distinctively popular for its lower capital costs especially in higher power applications. In order to study the integration of this type of generator into the grid, a laboratory based DFIG test rig was developed where its complete design process is presented in this dissertation. Mathematical modelling of related system components were thoroughly investigated so as to facilitate controller design based on the internal model control (IMC) methodology. In addition, a complete soft grid synchronisation procedure for the DFIG was investigated. It was found that the application of active damping within the IMC control law resulted in reduced stator current transients during synchronisation. Control voltage excitation for the DFIG rotor circuit was achieved by the implementation of two voltage source converters (VSCâ€™s) connected in a back-to-back configuration via a common DC-link. The rotorside converter (RSC) was responsible for regulating the machine speed whereas the grid-side converter (GSC) was responsible for regulating the DC-link voltage. In addition, these converters provided decoupled and bidirectional power flow control which enabled the DFIG to operate at sub synchronous and super synchronous speeds. A three-level VSC was chosen for the GSC control, where a resource conservative modulation algorithm that eliminates DC-link neutral voltage unbalance was implemented. The DFIG system design was simulated, and the results were verified through experimental tests performed on a 1.5kW wound rotor induction machine (WRIM). A detailed description of the laboratory setup of the DFIG is presented, and various practical limitations are discussed. It was found that the performance of the developed DFIG test rig correlated well with results of the simulations. Stable operation was achieved for various system test conditions, which indicated the systemâ€™s robustness to serve as a practical platform for future DFIG related research.
- ItemOpen AccessDevelopment of new methods for nonintrusive induction motor energy efficiency estimation(2020) Aminu, Muhammad; Barendse, Paul; Khan, AzeemInduction motors (IMs) are the most widely used motors in industries. They constitute about 70% of the total motors used in industries and are the largest energy consumers in industrial applications. As a result of the increasing need for energy savings and demand-side management, the development of methods for accurate energy efficiency estimation has become a crucial area of research. While several methods have been proposed for induction motor efficiency determination, majority of the methods cannot be easily applied in the field owing to the intrusive nature of the test procedures involved. This PhD work presents some novel methods for nonintrusive efficiency estimation of induction motors operating on-site using limited motor terminal measurements and nameplate data. The first method is developed for induction motors operating on sinusoidal supply source (line-fed). The method uses a modified inverse Ð“-model equivalent circuit with series core loss arrangement to mitigate the inherent problems of higher computational burden and parameter redundancy associated with the conventional equivalent circuit method. Furthermore, a new method is presented for estimating the friction and windage loss using the airgap torque and motor nameplate data. The proposed Nonintrusive Field Efficiency Estimation (NFEE) technique was validated experimentally on four different induction motors for both balanced and unbalanced voltage supply conditions. The results demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed NFEE method and confirm its advantage over the conventional equivalent circuit method. In addition to the problem of unbalanced voltage supply, the presence of harmonics significantly affects the operation of induction motors. The second novel approach for estimating efficiency proposed in this PhD work extends the NFEE method to cover for non-sinusoidal supply condition. The method considers the variation of core loss, rotor bar resistance and leakage inductance due to time harmonics and skin effects. Finally, the efficiency estimations are compared to the IEC/TS 60034-2-3 in the case of a balanced non-sinusoidal supply condition. This allows not only the efficiency comparison but also the loss segregation analysis on the various components of the motor losses. In the case of an unbalanced supply, the efficiency results are compared to measured values obtained based on the direct input-output method. In both the first and second methods, a robust Chicken Swarm Optimization (CSO) algorithm has been used for the first time in conjunction with a simplified inverse Ð“-model EC to correctly determine the induction motor parameters and hence its losses and efficiency while inservice. As Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) continue to dominate industrial process control, there is a need for stakeholders to quantify the converter-fed motor losses over a wide range of operating frequency and loading conditions. Although there is an increase in legislative activities, particularly in Europe, towards the classification and improvement of energy efficiency in electric drive systems, the handful of available standards for quantifying the harmonic losses are still undergoing validation. One of such standards is the IEC/TS 60034-2-3, which has been lauded as a step in the right direction. However, its limitation to rated motor frequency has been identified as one of its main weaknesses. Therefore, the third method proposed in this research demonstrates how the IEC/TS 60034-2-3 loss segregation methodology at nominal frequency can be extended over the constant-torque region of an induction motor (IM). The methodology has been validated by testing two motors using a 2-level voltage source inverter (VSI) in an open-loop V/F control mode. The results provide good feedback to the relevant IEC standards committee as well as guidance to stakeholders.
- ItemOpen AccessEnergy efficiency analysis of converter-fed induction motors(2018) Mushenya, John; Khan, AzeemElectric motor systems are the largest consumers of industrial electrical energy. As Variable Speed Drives continue to dominate various industrial processes, there is need for stakeholders to fully understand and quantify the converter-fed motor losses over a wide range of operating conditions. Such knowledge is crucial for both manufacturers and end-users in performing energy-efficiency optimizations for motor-drive applications. Although there is an increase in legislative activities, particularly in Europe, toward classification and improvement of energy efficiency of electric motor-drive systems, the available standards for quantifying the various losses are still in their early stages of development. None of these standards have yet passed through all the required phases for them to be considered full international standards, owing to a lack of consensus on many technical issues. Therefore, the need for researchers to provide feedback to the relevant standards committees cannot be over-emphasized. One of the most challenging issues in estimating the efficiency of converter-fed motors is the accurate determination of additional harmonic losses due to the PWM voltages and currents. Although the recently introduced IEC 60034-2-3 Technical Specification has proposed a method of determining these losses through experimental testing, the approach is still undergoing validation. Moreover, it only considers the rated motor frequency and voltage whereas induction motor drives are usually operated over a wide range of speed and torque. The main emphasis of the work presented in this dissertation was to develop a thorough understanding of various converter-fed induction motor losses, and hence efficiency, when fed from a 2-level Voltage Source Inverter. In particular, the dissertation provides a healthy questioning of some concepts in the proposed IEC method, with a view to providing useful feedback for improving the standard. Comparisons are also drawn between the related standards to identify areas for improvement. This study further attempts to explain some conflicting reports cited in literature regarding the nature of additional harmonic losses. The experimental results obtained by testing three induction motors demonstrate some of the technical issues associated with the determination of additional harmonic losses. To mitigate the adverse effect of varying technical skill and competence levels on efficiency test results, an automated testing procedure was developed and implemented on the 110kW test rig in the UCT Machines Lab. The test rig, which boasts of a Genesis 7i high-speed Data Acquisition System, also provides an energy-efficient platform for investigating the steadystate and dynamic characteristics of converter-fed motors. By utilizing the capability of the Data Acquisition System to segregate the fundamental and harmonic components of measured input electrical power, it was found that a PWM power supply can be used in place of a conventional Variac to estimate the sinusoidal supply efficiency of an induction motor. This is a welcome development for both laboratory and field efficiency testing applications.
- ItemOpen AccessImpact of armature rewinding on induction motor efficiency in South Africa(2009) Mzungu, Heskin Mkando; Khan, Azeem; Barendse, Paul StanleyThe aim of this thesis is to evaluate the impact of armature rewinding on the efficiency of Low Voltage (LV) industrial squirrel cage induction motors in South Africa. The efficiency of an electric motor is a measure of the effectiveness of the motor to convert electrical power at its terminals to mechanical power at its shaft. Although the definition is seemingly simple and straightforward, the determination of the efficiency of an induction motor is a much-debated topic. Motor manufacturers provide efficiency data obtained through measurement and calculation according to a variety of international standards. Several international standards exist, with each outlining different methods and procedures for the determination of induction motor efficiency. Most notable among the disparities is the treatment of stray losses. For example, the Japanese standard JEC-37 assumes stray losses to be negligible, others such as SANS 34-2 and ASINZ 1359.5 use a fixed value, while IEEE 112, CSA 390 and lEC 34-2 prefer to make actual measurements. A number of these standards were initially considered. However, after preliminary laboratory-tests were performed, it was observed that the IEEE 112 method B (2004) and IEC 60034-2 segregation method (2007) appeared to be the most consistent and repeatable. The two standards were therefore preferred and subsequently chosen for this project. The South African standard, SANS 34-2, is available but its methods of determining efficiency have been found to be unsupported due to its reference to the IEC 60034-2 (1984) which has been abandoned and replaced. The SANS 34-2 was therefore not used in the testing.
- ItemOpen AccessMicro combined heat and power management for a residential system(2013) Tichagwa, Anesu; Barendse, Paul Stanley; Khan, AzeemFuel cell technology has reached commercialisation of fuel cells in application areas such as residential power systems, automobile engines and driving of industrial manufacturing processes. This thesis gives an overview of the current state of fuel cell-based technology research and development, introduces a Î¼CHP system sizing strategy and proposes methods of improving on the implementation of residential fuel cell-based Î¼CHP technology. The three methods of controlling residential Î¼CHP systems discussed in this thesis project are heat-led, electricity-led and cost-minimizing control. Simulations of a typical HT PEMFC -based residential Î¼CHP unit are conducted using these control strategies. A model of a residential Î¼CHP system is formulated upon which these simulated tests are conducted. From these simulations, equations to model the costs of running a fuel-cell based Î¼CHP system are proposed. Having developed equations to quantify the running costs of the proposed Î¼CHP system a method for determining the ideal size of a Î¼CHP system is developed. A sizing technique based on industrial CHP sizing practices is developed in which the running costs and capital costs of the residential Î¼CHP system are utilised to determine the optimal size of the system. Residential thermal and electrical load profile data of a typical Danish household are used. Having simulated the system a practical implementation of the power electronics interface between the fuel cell and household grid is done. Two topologies are proposed for the power electronics interface a three-stage topology and a two-stage topology. The efficiencies of the overall systems of both topologies are determined. The system is connected to the grid so the output of each system is phase-shifted and DC injection, harmonic distortion, voltage range and frequency range are determined for both systems to determine compliance with grid standards. Deviations between simulated results and experimental results are recorded and discussed and relevant conclusions are drawn from these.
- ItemOpen AccessNon-intrusive efficiency estimation of induction machines under various power supplies(2013) Gajjar, Chetan Sudhir; Khan, Azeem; Barendse, Paul StanleyConsidering that 45% of the world's generated electricity is consumed by induction machines, determining an induction motors efficiency non-intrusively is of great importance in that it enables the machine to operate productively whilst ensuring that the energy consumed by the machine is utilized efficiently. International efficiency testing methods such as the IEEE 112-B can determine a motors efficiency accurately at the cost of hindering the machines productivity. Alternatively, various methods used to determine a machines efficiency in-situ do so at the cost of accuracy. This research proposes a method that determines an induction machines efficiency over a range of load conditions from tests conducted and centered around one thermally stable load point in the least intrusive manner possible. Coupled with vibration sensors used to determine a motor's speed, measured input voltages and currents are used to deduce a machine efficiency-load profile through the use of a modified evolutionary algorithm, the Non-Intrusive Efficiency Estimation using Population-Based Incremental Learning(NIEE-PBIL) algorithm. Five temporal load measurements are taken, centered around one thermally stable load point, to determine the machines efficiency profile from two equivalent circuit implementations; the Standard Circuit NIEE-PBIL and the Iron-Loss NIEE-PBIL.
- ItemOpen AccessNon-intrusive efficiency estimation of inverter-fed induction machines(2020) Chirindo, Mathews; Khan, Azeem; Barendse, PaulMotorised loads using induction machines use approximately 60% of the electricity globally. Most of these systems use three-phase induction motors due to their robustness and lower cost. They are often installed in continuously operating industrial plants/applications that require no operational interruptions. Whilst most of these induction machines are supplied from ideally sinusoidal supplies, applications are emerging where induction machines are fed from non-sinusoidal supplies. In particular, pulse width modulated inverters realize efficient control of induction machines in many automated industrial applications. From an energy management perspective, it is vital to continually assess the efficiency of induction machines in order to initiate replacement or economic repair. It is therefore of paramount importance that reliable and non-intrusive techniques for efficiency estimation of induction machines be investigated, that consider sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal supplies. This work proposes a non-intrusive efficiency estimation technique for inverterâ€“fed induction motors that is based on harmonic regression analysis, harmonic equivalent circuit parameter estimation and harmonic loss analysis using limited measured data. Firstly, considerations for inverter-fed induction motor equivalent circuit modelling and parameter estimation techniques suitable for non-intrusive efficiency estimation are presented and the selection of one equivalent circuit for analysis is justified. Measured data is obtained from two different induction motors on a flexible 110kW test rig that utilises an HBM Gen 7i data acquisition system. By measuring voltage, current and input power at the supply terminals of the inverter-fed motor, the fundamental equivalent circuit parameters are estimated using population based incremental learning algorithm and compared with those obtained from the IEC 60034-2-1 Standard. The harmonic parameters are estimated using the bacterial foraging algorithm basing on the input impedance of the motor at each harmonic order. A finite harmonic loss analysis is carried out on the tested induction motors. The proposed techniques and harmonic loss analysis provide accurate efficiency estimates of within 1.5% error when compared to the direct method. Lastly, a related non-intrusive efficiency estimation technique is proposed that caters for a holistic loss contribution by all harmonics. The efficiency results from the proposed techniques are compared to those obtained from the IEC-TS 60034-2-3 Technical Specification and a direct method. The estimated efficiencies are comparable to those measured by the Technical Specification and a direct method within 2% error when tested on 37kW and 45kW PWM inverter-fed motors across the loading range. Furthermore, this work conducts a comprehensive non-intrusive rotor speed estimation comparative analysis in order to recommend the best technique(s), in terms of intrusiveness, accuracy and computational overhead. Errors of less than 1% have been reported in literature and experimental verification when using vibration analysis, Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA), Rotor Slot Harmonic (RSH) and Rotor Eccentricity Harmonic (REH) analysis techniques in inverter-fed IMs.
- ItemOpen AccessPermanent Magnet Machine Topologies for high speed flywheels(2009) Mwaba, Gomezyani; Khan, Azeem