Browsing by Author "Jewkes, Rachel"
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- ItemOpen AccessCarework and caring: A path to gender equitable practices among men in South Africa?(BioMed Central Ltd, 2011) Morrell, Robert; Jewkes, RachelBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between men who engage in carework and commitment to gender equity. The context of the study was that gender inequitable masculinities create vulnerability for men and women to HIV and other health concerns. Interventions are being developed to work with masculinity and to 'change men'. Researchers now face a challenge of identifying change in men, especially in domains of their lives beyond relations with women. Engagement in carework is one suggested indicator of more gender equitable practice. METHODS: A qualitative approach was used. 20 men in three South African locations (Durban, Pretoria/Johannesburg, Mthatha) who were identified as engaging in carework were interviewed. The men came from different backgrounds and varied in terms of age, race and socio-economic status. A semi-structured approach was used in the interviews. RESULTS: Men were engaged in different forms of carework and their motivations to be involved differed. Some men did carework out of necessity. Poverty, associated with illness in the family and a lack of resources propelled some men into carework. Other men saw carework as part of a commitment to making a better world. 'Care' interpreted as a functional activity was not enough to either create or signify support for gender equity. Only when care had an emotional resonance did it relate to gender equity commitment. CONCLUSIONS: Engagement in carework precipitated a process of identity and value transformation in some men suggesting that support for carework still deserves to be a goal of interventions to 'change men'. Changing the gender of carework contributes to a more equitable gender division of labour and challenges gender stereotypes. Interventions that promote caring also advance gender equity.
- ItemOpen AccessAn exploration of the nature of contemporaty adolescents' intimate relationships(2013) Gevers, Aník; Flisher, Alan J; Mathews, Catherine; Jewkes, RachelIntimate relationships in adolescence play an important role in psychosocial development and can impact on relationships during adulthood. There is a need for evidence-based interventions to prevent intimate partner violence (IPV), promote sexual and reproductive health, and equitable, enjoyable relationships during adolescence. A nuanced understanding of contemporary adolescents' intimate relationships is needed to inform intervention development. A series of studies was undertaken to explore (a) contemporary adolescents' ideas about and experiences of relationships; (b) young adolescents' sexual behaviour and dating; (c) adolescents' conceptions of a good relationship; and (d) published-evidence guidelines for developing school-based violence prevention interventions. For study (a), qualitative data were collected during focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with 14-18 year olds. Survey data from 13-16 year olds (for study b) and 15-18 year olds (for study c) were analysed using regression analyses. Adolescentsâ€™ intimate relationships are fluid and unstructured, highly gendered, and greatly influenced by peer relationships; however, experience with relationships and sex are varied. For girls, good relationships were associated with having a mutual main partnership with an older, educated boyfriend in which there was good, open communication particularly about sexual and reproductive health. For boys, a mutual main partnership and very little quarrelling were associated with good relationships. Young adolescents' reported engaging in a variety of sexual behaviours ranging from kissing to sexual intercourse with the former more common than the latter. These findings indicate a need for early interventions that are carefully adapted and acceptable to adolescents who have varying levels of experience with relationships, sex, and violence. Adolescents would benefit from developing gender equitable attitudes; critically reflecting on their ideas and practices related to good and poor relationships; building sexual decision-making skills to better prepare them to develop and maintain good, healthy relationships and end poor or abusive ones. Interventions should incorporate adolescents' perspectives and balance evidence-based best practice and resource availability.
- ItemOpen AccessForensic medicine in South Africa: associations between medical practice and legal case progression and outcomes in female murders(Public Library of Science, 2011) Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel; Martin, Lorna J; Mathews, ShanaazBACKGROUND: Forensic medicine has been largely by-passed by the tide of health systems research and evidence based medicine. Murder victims form a central part of forensic medical examiners' case load, and women murdered by intimate partners are an important subgroup, representing the most severe form and consequence of intimate partner violence. Our aim was to describe the epidemiology of female murder in South Africa (by intimate and non-intimate partners); and to describe and compare autopsy findings, forensic medical management of cases and the contribution of these to legal outcomes. METHODS: We did a retrospective national study in a proportionate random sample of 25 medico-legal laboratories to identify all homicides in 1999 of women aged 14 years and over. Data were abstracted from the mortuary file and autopsy report, and collected from a police interview. FINDINGS: In 21.5% of cases the perpetrator was convicted. Factors associated with a conviction for the female murders included having a history of intimate partner violence 1.18 (95%CI: 0.16-2.20), weapon recovered 1.36 (95% CI:0.58-2.15) and a detective visiting the crime scene 1.57 (95% CI:0.14-3.00). None of the forensic medical activities increased the likelihood of a conviction. CONCLUSION: The findings raise important questions about the role of forensic medicine in these cases.
- ItemOpen AccessGender and sexuality: emerging perspectives from the heterosexual epidemic in South Africa and implications for HIV risk and prevention(BioMed Central Ltd, 2010) Jewkes, Rachel; Morrell, RobertResearch shows that gender power inequity in relationships and intimate partner violence places women at enhanced risk of HIV infection. Men who have been violent towards their partners are more likely to have HIV. Men's behaviours show a clustering of violent and risky sexual practices, suggesting important connections. This paper draws on Raewyn Connell's notion of hegemonic masculinity and reflections on emphasized femininities to argue that these sexual, and male violent, practices are rooted in and flow from cultural ideals of gender identities. The latter enables us to understand why men and women behave as they do, and the emotional and material context within which sexual behaviours are enacted.In South Africa, while gender identities show diversity, the dominant ideal of black African manhood emphasizes toughness, strength and expression of prodigious sexual success. It is a masculinity women desire; yet it is sexually risky and a barrier to men engaging with HIV treatment. Hegemonically masculine men are expected to be in control of women, and violence may be used to establish this control. Instead of resisting this, the dominant ideal of femininity embraces compliance and tolerance of violent and hurtful behaviour, including infidelity.The women partners of hegemonically masculine men are at risk of HIV because they lack control of the circumstances of sex during particularly risky encounters. They often present their acquiescence to their partners' behaviour as a trade off made to secure social or material rewards, for this ideal of femininity is upheld, not by violence per se, by a cultural system of sanctions and rewards. Thus, men and women who adopt these gender identities are following ideals with deep roots in social and cultural processes, and thus, they are models of behaviour that may be hard for individuals to critique and in which to exercise choice. Women who are materially and emotionally vulnerable are least able to risk experiencing sanctions or foregoing these rewards and thus are most vulnerable to their men folk.We argue that the goals of HIV prevention and optimizing of care can best be achieved through change in gender identities, rather than through a focus on individual sexual behaviours.
- ItemOpen AccessGender differences in homicide of neonates, infants, and children under 5 y in South Africa: results from the cross-sectional 2009 National Child Homicide Study(Public Library of Science, 2016) Abrahams, Naeemah; Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J; Lombard, Carl; Nannan, Nadine; Jewkes, RachelJewkes and colleagues present a cross-sectional study that reveals levels of child homicide in South Africa. Identifying causes and vulnerable mothers will lead to prevention methods and strategies.
- ItemOpen AccessGender inequitable masculinity and sexual entitlement in rape perpetration South Africa: findings of a cross-sectional study(Public Library of Science, 2011) Jewkes, Rachel; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert; Dunkle, KristinObjective To describe the prevalence and patterns of rape perpetration in a randomly selected sample of men from the general adult population, to explore factors associated with rape and to describe how men explained their acts of rape. Design Cross-sectional household study with a two- stage randomly selected sample of men. METHODS: 1737 South African men aged 18-49 completed a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to identify factors associated with rape perpetration. RESULTS: In all 27.6% (466/1686) of men had raped a woman, whether an intimate partner, stranger or acquaintance, and whether perpetrated alone or with accomplices, and 4.7% had raped in the last 12 months. First rapes for 75% were perpetrated before age 20, and 53.9% (251) of those raping, did so on multiple occasions. The logistic regression model showed that having raped was associated with greater adversity in childhood, having been raped by a man and higher maternal education. It was associated with less equitable views on gender relations, having had more partners, and many more gender inequitable practices including transactional sex and physical partner violence. Also drug use, gang membership and a higher score on the dimensions of psychopathic personality, namely blame externalisation and Machiavellian egocentricity. Asked about why they did it, the most common motivations stemmed from ideas of sexual entitlement. CONCLUSIONS: Perpetration of rape is so prevalent that population-based measures of prevention are essential to complement criminal justice system responses. Our findings show the importance of measures to build gender equity and change dominant ideas of masculinity and gender relations as part of rape prevention. Reducing men's exposure to trauma in childhood is also critically important.
- ItemOpen AccessIllegal yet developmentally normative: a descriptive analysis of young, urban adolescents' dating and sexual behaviour in Cape Town, South Africa(BioMed Central Ltd, 2013) Gevers, Anik; Mathews, Cathy; Cupp, Pam; Russell, Marcia; Jewkes, RachelBACKGROUND:In South Africa, it is illegal for adolescents under age 16years to engage in any sexual behaviour whether kissing, petting, or penetrative sex, regardless of consent. This cross-sectional study investigated the extent to which young adolescents engage in various sexual behaviours and the associations between dating status and sexual behaviours.METHOD:Grade 8 adolescents (N=474, ages 12-15years, mean=14.14years) recruited from Cape Town schools completed surveys providing information about their sociodemographic backgrounds, dating experience, sexual behaviour, and substance use. RESULTS: Lower hierarchy sexual behaviours, such as kissing (71.4% of girls; 88.4% of boys), were more common than oral (3.9% of girls; 13.8% of boys), vaginal (9.3% of girls; 30.0% of boys), or anal (1.4% of girls; 10.5% of boys) sex. Currently dating girls and boys were more likely to engage in sexual behaviours including several risk behaviours in comparison to their currently non-dating counterparts. These risk behaviours included penetrative sex (21.1% of dating vs. 4.5% of non-dating girls; 49.4% of dating vs. 20.2% of non-dating boys), sex with co-occurring substance use (22.2% of dating vs. 0 non-dating girls; 32.1% of dating vs. 40% of non-dating boys), and no contraceptive use (26.1% of sexually experienced girls; 44.4% of sexually experienced boys). Among girls, there were significant associations between ever having penetrative sex and SES (OR=2.592, p=0.017) and never dating (OR=0.330, p=0.016). Among boys, there were significant associations between ever having penetrative sex and never dating (OR=0.162, p=0.008). Although the currently dating group of young adolescents appear to be a precocious group in terms of risk behaviour relative to the currently non-dating group, teenagers in both groups had experience in the full range of sexual behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: Many young adolescents are engaging in a variety of sexual behaviours ranging from kissing and touching to intercourse. Of particular concern are those engaging in risky sexual behaviour. These findings indicate that adolescents need to be prepared for sexual negotiation and decision-making from an early age through comprehensive and accessible education and health services; sections of current legislation may be a barrier to adopting such policies and practices.
- ItemOpen AccessIntimate femicide-suicide in South Africa : the epidemiology of male suicide following the killing of an intimate partner(2005) Mathews, Shanaaz; Abrahams, Naeema; Mathews, Catherine; Jewkes, RachelThe few studies on intimate femicide-suicide have mainly been conducted in developed countries. These studies have found that a disproportionate number of male partners commit suicide after killing their female partner. However, not much is known about intimate femicide-suicide in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to describe: the incidence and patterns of intimate femicide-suicide in South Africa and to compare the factors which distinguish intimate femicide-suicide from cases in which the perpetrator does not commit suicide. The study was designed as a retrospective national mortuary based study of all female homicides where the victim was aged 14 years and older for the year 1999. Data was collected from a stratified cluster sample of 25 mortuaries in South Africa. National incidence rates and factors associated with perpetrator suicide were derived by taking into account the stratification and weighting of mortuaries. This study found that 19.4% of intimate femicide perpetrators also commit suicide within a week of the murder. The estimated rates for intimate femicide-suicide were 1.7/100 000 women 14 years and older and 2.1/100 000 males 14 years and older. A logistic regression analysis to compare the factors which distinguish intimate femicide-suicide from cases in which the perpetrator does not commit suicide shows that perpetrator suicide were associated with: the perpetrator being of White race; employed as a professional or white collar worker; and owing a legal gun. The study findings have shown that South Africa has the highest reported rate for intimate femicide-suicide in the world. This poses an important public health problem. Unraveling the factors associated with perpetrator suicide after killing an intimate partner is complex. However, legal gun ownership plays a significant role in such killings. It is therefore imperative that access to guns be controlled and monitored.
- ItemOpen AccessMen, prostitution and the provider role: understanding the intersections of economic exchange, sex, crime and violence in South Africa(Public Library of Science, 2012) Jewkes, Rachel; Morrell, Robert; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Dunkle, Kristin; Penn-Kekana, LovedayBACKGROUND: South African policy makers are reviewing legislation of prostitution, concerned that criminalisation hampers HIV prevention. They seek to understand the relationship between transactional sex, prostitution, and the nature of the involved men. METHODS: 1645 randomly-selected adult South African men participated in a household study, disclosing whether they had sex with a woman in prostitution or had had a provider relationship (or sex), participation in crime and violence and completing psychological measures. These became outcomes in multivariable regression models, where the former were exposure variables. RESULTS: 51% of men had had a provider relationship and expected sex in return, 3% had had sex with a woman in prostitution, 15% men had done both of these and 31% neither. Provider role men, and those who had just had sex with a woman in prostitution, were socially conservative and quite violent. Yet the men who had done both (75% of those having sex with a woman in prostitution) were significantly more misogynist, highly scoring on dimensions of psychopathy, more sexually and physically violent to women, and extensively engaged in crime. They had often bullied at school, suggesting that this instrumental, self-seeking masculinity was manifest in childhood. The men who had not engaged in sex for economic exchange expressed a much less violent, more law abiding and gender equitable masculinity; challenging assumptions about the inevitability of intersections of age, poverty, crime and misogyny. CONCLUSIONS: Provider role relationships (or sex) are normative for low income men, but not having sex with a woman in prostitution. Men who do the latter operate extensively outside the law and their violence poses a substantial threat to women. Those drafting legislation and policy on the sex industry in South Africa need to distinguish between these two groups to avoid criminalising the normal, and consider measures to protect women.
- ItemOpen AccessThe relationship between intimate partner violence, rape and HIV amongst South African men: a cross-sectional study(Public Library of Science, 2011) Jewkes, Rachel; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert; Dunkle, KristinObjective: To investigate the associations between intimate partner violence, rape and HIV among South African men. Design Cross-sectional study involving a randomly-selected sample of men. METHODS: We tested hypotheses that perpetration of physical intimate partner violence and rape were associated with prevalent HIV infections in a cross-sectional household study of 1229 South African men aged 18-49. Violence perpetration was elicited in response to a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant and blood samples were tested for HIV. A multivariable logistic regression model was built to identify factors associated with HIV. RESULTS: 18.3% of men had HIV. 29.6% (358/1211) of men disclosed rape perpetration, 5.2% (63/1208) rape in the past year and 30.7% (362/1180) of had been physically violent towards an intimate partner more than once. Overall rape perpetration was not associated with HIV. The model of factors associated with having HIV showed men under 25 years who had been physically violent towards partners were more likely to have HIV than men under 25 who had not (aOR 2.08 95% CI 1.07-4.06, p = 0.03). We failed to detect any association in older men. CONCLUSIONS: Perpetration of physical IPV is associated with HIV sero-prevalence in young men, after adjusting for other risk factors. This contributes to our understanding of why women who experience violence have a higher HIV prevalence. Rape perpetration was not associated, but the HIV prevalence among men who had raped was very high. HIV prevention in young men must seek to change ideals of masculinity in which male partner violence is rooted.
- ItemOpen AccessRelationship between single and multiple perpetrator rape perpetration in South Africa: A comparison of risk factors in a population-based sample(BioMed Central Ltd, 2015) Jewkes, Rachel; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Dunkle, Kristin; Morrell, RobertBACKGROUND:Studies of rape of women seldom distinguish between men's participation in acts of single and multiple perpetrator rape. Multiple perpetrator rape (MPR) occurs globally with serious consequences for women. In South Africa it is a cultural practice with defined circumstances in which it commonly occurs. Prevention requires an understanding of whether it is a context specific intensification of single perpetrator rape, or a distinctly different practice of different men. This paper aims to address this question. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional household study with a multi-stage, randomly selected sample of 1686 men aged 18-49 who completed a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant. We attempted to fit an ordered logistic regression model for factors associated with rape perpetration. RESULTS: 27.6% of men had raped and 8.8% had perpetrated multiple perpetrator rape (MPR). Thus 31.9% of men who had ever raped had done so with other perpetrators. An ordered regression model was fitted, showing that the same associated factors, albeit at higher prevalence, are associated with SPR and MPR. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple perpetrator rape appears as an intensified form of single perpetrator rape, rather than a different form of rape. Prevention approaches need to be mainstreamed among young men.
- ItemOpen AccessA study of the knowledge and problem solving ability of the family planning nurse in Mdantsane(1998) Mathai, Mary; Jewkes, Rachel; Jacobs, MarianWomen's control over their fertility is vital for both their health and that of their children. Although family planning methods are available at most health facilities in the country, the service does not enable many Black South African women to control their fertility successfully. This inadequacy of the present service is demonstrated, by a high rate of teenage pregnancy and abortion. Based on anecdotal reports, one of the barriers to effective use of contraceptive methods seemed to be the competence and abilities of the providers. This qualitative study was done in clinics in a peri-urban township to explore the knowledge and problem-solving abilities of the nurses providing family planning services. The aim was to use the information so gained to improve family planning services in the area by preparing a set of guidelines for the management of specific clinical problems and making recommendations to service organisers. The study tape-recorded 18 actual nurse-patient interactions to get an idea of the clinical problems faced by the nurses. A consensus panel was used to derive a set of "ideal" answers to the clinical scenarios the nurses faced in the consultations and the nurses' and panels' responses were compared. A focus group discussion with the nurses was then conducted and their opinions and reasons for the differences explored. The results revealed a general malaise affecting the services in this area. There were significant differences in the nurses and panels' handling of the problems especially in the areas of counselling and advice. In addition, the nurses were found to be inappropriate providers of family planning as their scope of practice prevented them from examining patients. They were also unable to rule out pregnancy because there were no pregnancy test kits available in the clinics. The focus group discussions indicated that many of the nurses knew how to handle the problems and what advice to give. They claimed that work and time pressures prevented them from doing this. They also alleged that patients were the problem and never told the truth. Poor communication skills and attitudes towards patients were other barriers identified. Nurses spoke to their patients like children and were often rude. In addition, nurses counselled patients infrequently on the use of methods and the side effects to be expected. Patients were offered a choice of method rarely and health education when given, focused on morality and did not mention issues like safe sex and HIV/ AIDS. The manual of guidelines will only address the problem solving of the nurses. The study therefore concludes by making recommendations to the Directorate of Maternal, Child and Women' s Health to carefully evaluate the use of enrolled nurses as providers with full consideration given to the quality of care that can be provided by them. The resources available and the practices related to supervision and in-service training also need to be reviewed and prioritised. A recommendation is also made to the Provincial Human Resources Directorate to develop policies for improving staff attitudes towards service users and disciplinary procedures for staff who are rude to service users. Recommendations are also made to supervisors to review the present training course and introduce the problem-solving approach and respect for patient autonomy into it. The supervision is also recommended to be facilitative and on-site and the providers must be involved in the solving of problems. The emphasis of the service must change from patient turnover to effective contraceptive use to enable women in this area to have any meaningful control over their fertility.
- ItemOpen AccessTransactional relationships and sex with a woman in prostitution: prevalence and patterns in a representative sample of South African men(BioMed Central Ltd, 2012) Jewkes, Rachel; Morrell, Robert; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Dunkle, Kristin; Penn-Kekana, LovedayBACKGROUND: Sex motivated by economic exchange is a public health concern as a driver of the Sub-Saharan African HIV epidemic. We describe patterns of engagement in transactional sexual relationships and sex with women in prostitution of South African men, and suggest interpretations that advance our understanding of the phenomenon. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a randomly-selected sample of 1645 sexually active men aged 18-49years who completed interviews in a household study and were asked whether they had had sex with a woman in prostitution, or had had a relationship or sex they took to be motivated by the expectation of material gain (transactional sex). RESULTS: 18% of men had ever had sex with a woman in prostitution, 66% at least one type of transactional sexual relationship, only 30% of men had done neither. Most men had had a transactional relationship/sex with a main partner (58% of all men), 42% with a concurrent partner (or makhwapheni) and 44% with a once off partner, and there was almost no difference in reports of what was provided to women of different partner types. The majority of men distinguished the two types of sexual relationships and even among men who had once-off transactional sex and gave cash (n=314), few (34%) reported that they had had sex with a 'prostitute'. Transactional sex was more common among men aged 25-34years, less educated men and low income earners rather than those with none or higher income. Having had sex with a woman in prostitution varied little between social and demographic categories, but was less common among the unwaged or very low earners. CONCLUSIONS: The notion of 'transactional sex' developed through research with women does not translate easily to men. Many perceive expectations that they fulfil a provider role, with quid pro quo entitlement to sex. Men distinguished these circumstances of sex from having sex with a woman in prostitution. Whilst there may be similarities, when viewed relationally, these are quite distinct practices. Conflating them is sociologically inappropriate. Efforts to work with men to reduce transactional sex should focus on addressing sexual entitlement and promoting gender inequity.