Browsing by Author "Burgess, Theresa"
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- ItemOpen AccessAccuracy of prediction of edurance running performance : relationship to training history, muscle pain and relative perception of effort(2014) Nunes, Dawn; Burgess, Theresa; Lambert, MikeBackground: Endurance running performance is a complex interaction between training factors, exercise-induced muscle damage, and fatigue. The accuracy of prediction of running performance allows for the consideration of the effects of teleoanticipatory factors such as pacing and prior experience on performance. However, previous studies have not adequately considered the role of predicting performance outcomes before competition, and the potential influence of self-regulated pacing and prior experience on running performance. Aim: The aim of this descriptive analytical correlational study was to determine potential factors associated with the accuracy of prediction of running performance during a marathon race. Specific objectives: (a) To determine whether there were differences in training history, pacing, muscle pain and the relative perception of effort (RPE) in three identified groups that accurately predicted race time, performed faster than the predicted time, or performed slower than the predicted time; and (b) to determine if demographic characteristics, training and competition history, self-identified pacing strategy, muscle pain and the relative perception of effort (RPE) were associated with the accuracy of predicting performance during the marathon. Methods: Sixty-three healthy male and female runners were recruited through a short message service (SMS), word of mouth and at the 2013 Mandela Day marathon registration. Participants were included if they were over the age of 20 years, and were taking part in the marathon race. Participants were required to complete the marathon within the seven-hour cut-off time. Participants who had any lower limb musculoskeletal injury, medical condition or surgical intervention that prevented training for seven consecutive days in the three-month period prior to the race were excluded from the study. Participants who reported any flu-like symptoms during the two weeks preceding the race were also excluded from the study. In addition, participants with any missing race RPE or pain scores were excluded. Participants were allocated to one of three groups depending on their accuracy in predicting their final race time. A margin of two percentage points was considered as a meaningful difference in time. If the participants’ actual race time was accurate within two percentage points of their predicted race time, it was considered accurate, and those participants formed the accurate group (n = 16). Participants on either side of the two percentage points formed the fast (n = 21) and slow (n = 26) groups respectively. All participants completed an informed consent form and a medical and training questionnaire at a familiarisation session before to the race. Participants were also familiarised with the tests and procedures for collecting data during the race. During the marathon, muscle pain and relative perception of effort (RPE) were recorded at 0 km, 10 km, 21.1 km, 30 km, and 42.2 km. A short compliance questionnaire was completed when participants finished the marathon. Official race times were obtained from the Championchip® website. Muscle pain was recorded for seven days after the marathon. Participants were also asked to report when they resumed running training after the race. Results Participants in the slow group were significantly younger (p < 0.05), had faster 10 km PB times (p < 0.01), and trained at a faster pace (p < 0.01) compared to participants in the accurate and fast groups. Participants in the slow group had faster actual (p < 0.05) and predicted (p < 0.01) marathon times (p < 0.01) compared to participants in the accurate and fast groups. There was a significant positive relationship between actual and predicted marathon times (r = 0.71, p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between groups in muscle pain and RPE during the race; however there were significant main effects of time for pain (p < 0.01) and RPE (p < 0.01) during the race. Muscle pain and RPE were significantly increased at 21 km, 30 km, and 42.2 km, compared to pre-race values. There were no significant differences in post-race pain between groups, but there was a significant main effect of time (p < 0.01) as muscle pain was significantly elevated for three days after the race. This study was also unable to identify any significant demographic, training and competition history, or race factors associated with the accuracy of prediction of marathon performance. Conclusion: Linear increases in muscle pain and RPE were observed during the race in all groups. This study was unable to identify specific factors associated with the accuracy of prediction of running performance during a marathon race. However, it is possible that the slow marathon times and the low relative exercise intensity in all groups may have limited the effects of muscle pain and RPE on self-regulated pacing and performance. Future studies should have more stringent inclusion criteria to ensure runners are competing at moderate to high relative exercise intensities. In addition, future studies should carefully consider route profiles to ensure that the race profile does not potentially confound the accuracy of prediction of performance by limiting actual marathon times.
- ItemOpen AccessAccuracy of the prediction of Ironman performance : relationship to training history, muscle pain and relative perception of effort during, and recovery after the race(2010) Spijkerman, Ronel; Lambert, Mike; Burgess, TheresaWith regards to swimming, cycling and running, several studies have investigated the physiological and genetic contribution of performance in athletes, different training programs and athletes' adaptation to these programs. Other studies have investigated levels of pain and relative perception of effort (RPE) and the athlete's ability to recover after endurance races... The aim of this thesis is to review the literture which discusses the background to the questions outlined above (Chapter 2), followed by a study which attempts to answer these questions (Chapter 3). The aim of the study was to establish whether the training methods in preparation for the Ironman were related to subjective pain and perception of effort during the race, and the recovery time after the race. The study was designed to establish whether there were differences in these variables between triathletes who predicted their finishing time accurately compared to those triathletes wo under-or over-predicted their performance.
- ItemOpen AccessBalance and agility in mountain bikers: a reliability and validity study on skills affecting control in mountain biking(2021) Buchholtz, Kim Anne; Burgess, Theresa; Lambert, MichaelBackground Cycling is a popular recreational and competitive form of physical activity and method of transport. Cycling is broadly categorised as road cycling or mountain biking, and each form presents unique challenges and has different skill requirements. While cycling, in general, provides many benefits to both physical health and social behaviours, there are legitimate concerns about injuries related to both road and mountain cycling. Most of the available research presents the injury incidence in commuter or road cycling, with an apparent lack of evidence in mountain biking. The van Mechelen model of injury prevention outlines four stages in injury prevention research; the first stage investigates the extent of the injury and provides the basis on which the remaining stages depend. Based on the van Mechelen conceptual model, the broad aim of this thesis was to investigate acute injury epidemiology in mountain biking and the factors affecting bicycle control and falling. Investigations We performed a systematic review of the incidence of injury in mountain biking. Acute injury incidence ranged from 4% to 71% in cross-country mountain bike races. The causal indicators of bicycle control may include balance, agility and visual perception. In a pilot study, we developed novel tests to assess static bicycle balance and bicycle agility as measures of bicycle control. In the following study, we developed additional dynamic bicycle balance with four increasingly difficult levels. In this study, twenty-nine participants attended three days of repeated testing for reliability assessments of these tests. Participants also completed an outdoor downhill run. Performance in the balance tests were compared to performance in the outdoor downhill test to assess their ecological validity. All tests were assessed for reliability using typical error of measurement, standardised typical error, intraclass correlation coefficients, limits of agreement, effect sizes and repeated measures ANOVA's (with post hoc testing) analyses. The novel bicycle balance and agility were significantly associated with the performance in the outdoor downhill run (r=-0.51 to 0.78; p=0.01 to 0.0001). Cognitive and physical fatigue are factors that may contribute to loss of control of the bicycle. In our final study, we aimed to assess the effect of these factors on the performance in the novel tests. Rate of perceived exertion was significantly increased for all tests following physical fatigue (Cliff's d effect size= 0.27-0.40; p=0.001 to 0.037), but balance and agility performance were not affected. Cognitive fatigue had no effect on balance and agility performance. The fatigue induced in these protocols was insufficient to change performance in the bicycle-specific balance and agility tests. This indicates that either the fatigue protocols did not sufficiently replicate the fatigue experienced in mountain biking or that the tests are too blunt to be affected by the magnitude of fatigue in these protocols. Conclusion The overall incidence of injury in mountain biking is difficult to determine due to different injury definitions in the research. However, the available data clearly indicates an area of concern in sports and exercise medicine. We developed novel tests to assess the skill components of balance and agility on a mountain bike. The novel bicycle-specific tests are robust assessments of mountain biking performance and can be applied in clinical and research environments to determine bicycle control. Cognitive and physical fatigue did not affect performance on these novel tests. Based on the overall findings of our studies, we recommend that further research is conducted on the epidemiology of mountain biking injuries. The effect of fatigue on the novel tests needs to be investigated further using a combination of physical and cognitive fatigue.
- ItemOpen AccessCervico-mandibular muscle activity in females with chronic cervical pain a descriptive, cross-sectional, correctional study(2012) Lang, Patricia; Parker, Romy; Burgess, TheresaChronic musculoskeletal conditions of the spine and periphery are a burden both internationally and in South Africa. There is a socio-economic burden as a consequence of the severity, duration and recurrence of chronic cervical musculoskeletal conditions among information technology and sedentary office workers. However, the precise mechanisms behind chronic cervical disorders remain unclear. It is theorised that the pathophysiological mechanisms in chronic cervical musculoskeletal conditions share a similar theoretical framework to chronic pain itself. The biopsychosocial model of chronic pain accepts the dynamic nature of pain. This model accepts the dual biological and psychosocial components that enhance the experience and maintenance of chronic pain, through central sensitisation. There appears to be a neurophysiological, biomechanical and psychological link between the cervical area and the temporomandibular area. Although numerous studies have implied that individuals with temporomandibular disorders have concurrent cervical dysfunction, there is currently no evidence that individuals with cervical dysfunction exhibit altered muscle activity in the masseter and cervical erector spinae muscles or report teeth clenching habits. Consequently, identification of factors that may contribute to chronic cervical musculoskeletal conditions, stemming from the temporomandibular area, may potentially be lost. The aim of the present study was to explore the activity levels of the cervicomandibular muscles in females with chronic cervical musculoskeletal conditions, who showed no symptoms of temporomandibular disorders. This study had a descriptive cross-sectional correlational design with single-blinding. The telephonic screening process was followed by the signing of informed consent forms. Validated questionnaires were used for categorisation and comparison of the socio-demographic and biopsychosocial profiles of the pain group (n = 20) and the no pain group (n = 22). The screening, informed consent and questionnaires were completed by an assistant. The first of five questionnaires, the adapted Research Diagnostic Criteria History questionnaire, was used as an instrument for exclusion of temporomandibular disorders and the recording of a daytime parafunctional teeth clenching habit. The remaining four questionnaires, listed as the Neck Disability Index, the Computer Usage Questionnaire, the Brief Pain Inventory, and the EuroQol-5D were used for determining levels of cervical disability for categorisation and comparison between groups, as well as for determining levels of pain-related disability, occupational and sporting activity, and health related quality of life.
- ItemOpen AccessA comparison of muscle damage, soreness, morphology, T2 changes and running performance following an ultramarathon race(2016) Van Niekerk, Wanda; Burgess, TheresaBackground: Exercise induced muscle damage collectively describes the response to strenuous or unaccustomed exercise. It is well - established that endurance running causes muscle damage. Indirect indicators of muscle damage include the loss of muscle strength, increased levels of muscle proteins, such as creatine kinase, in the blood and delayed onset of muscle soreness. Magnetic resonance imaging has been used to gain insight in to the underlying mechanisms associated with exercise induced muscle damage. The most common approach has focused on changes in transverse (T2) relaxation times after exercise. Given that inflammation and oedema are proposed as reasons for the changes in T2 times, there may be changes in morphological measurements such as muscle volume and peak cross sectional area. Few studies have utilised MRI morphological measurements to assess the effects of exercise induced muscle damage, and there is a lack of evidence regarding changes in muscle morphology after endurance running. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate changes in transverse (T2) relaxation times and muscle morphology in endurance runners after a 90 km ultramarathon race. Specific objectives: (a) To determine the time course of recovery of muscle pain and plasma creatine kinase activity after a 90km ultramarathon race; (b) to determine changes in 5km time trial performance in an experimental group of endurance runners that took part in a 90 km ultramarathon race compared to a control group of endurance runners that did not take part in a 90 km ultramarathon race; (c) to compare changes in muscle morphology (volume and average cross sectional area) and T2 relaxation times of the quadriceps and hamstrings in an experimental group of endurance runners that took part in a 90 km ultramarathon race and a control group of endurance runners that did not take part in a 90 km ultramarathon race; and (d) to evaluate potential relationships between indicators of muscle damage (plasma creatine kinase levels and muscle pain measurements), morphological muscle changes, and T2 relaxation times in an experimental group of endurance runners that took part in a 90 km ultramarathon race and a control group of endurance runners that did not take part in a 90 km ultramarathon race. Methods: This was a descriptive, correlational study that involved secondary analysis of previously collected data. No new participants were recruited for the study. Participants were allocated to groups, based on whether they took part in a 90 km ultramarathon. The experimental group (n = 11) completed a 90 km ultramarathon. The control group (n = 11) consisted of endurance runners, who ran a minimum of 60 km.wk-1, but did not take part in the ultramarathon. Magnetic resonance images were taken seven days before and 10 - 15 days after an ultramarathon as part of an earlier study. The magnetic resonance images analysis included the digital segmentation and reconstruction of the rectus femoris, combined quadriceps and combined hamstrings muscle groups. Muscle volume and peak cross sectional area was calculated as well as T2 relaxation times. These measurements were correlated with muscle pain and plasma creatine kinase activity measurements obtained during the initial study. Results: There was a significant difference in hamstrings muscle volume between the experimental and control groups. The experimental group had a significantly lower muscle volume compared to the control group (p = 0.03). There was also a significant positive relationship between the T2 relaxation time and plasma CK activity. (r = 0.74; p = 0.04) Conclusion: Changes in muscle morphology in endurance runners are evident after a 90 km ultramarathon. The significant relationship between T2 relaxation times and plasma creatine kinase activity confirms that T2 relaxation time may be used as a non-invasive direct indicator of exercise induced muscle damage.
- ItemOpen AccessA cross sectional study to determine whether there are central nervous system changes in football players who have sustained recurrent lateral ankle injuries using the laterality judgement task, two point discrimination test and limb perception testing(2016) Jakoet, Rashaad; Parker, Romy; Burgess, TheresaBackground: A chronic ankle sprain injury is a condition that affects professional, amateur and social football players globally. Despite a large amount of research into the medical management of this condition, it remains one of the most frequently experienced injuries in professional football. A previous ankle sprain is a recognised risk factor for future lateral ankle sprain injury. No previous study has investigated the effects of chronic lateral ankle sprains on the cortical representation of the ankle in the brain. Aim: To determine if there are any changes in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices of football players who have a history of recurrent ankle sprain injuries Methods: 25 professional male football players (13 previously injured, 12 noninjured) with an average age of 24.9y (+/- 4.49y) from a national first division club were recruited for the study. . All players included in the study completed an informed consent form before participation in the study and were declared fit to play by the clubs medical staff. Player demographics and training history were collected by means of a questionnaire followed by anthropometric measurements being taken. Tests used in the assessment of complex regional pain syndrome (Laterality Judgement Task recognition, two point discrimination and limb perception drawing) were used to assess for cortical representation changes in both limbs of injured players and uninjured players.
- ItemOpen AccessCross sectional study to determine whether there are central nervous system changes in rugby players who have sustained recurrent ankle injuries(2017) Rawlinson, Alice Jane; Parker, Romy; Burgess, TheresaBackground: Rugby is a popular game played around the world and has one of the highest recorded injury rates in sport. The literature exposes ankle injuries as one of the most common areas injured in sport and this trend carries through in rugby too, with lateral ankle sprains predominating. Recurrent ankle injuries are commonly reported in the literature and account for high economic and social burden. There are many intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors credited with causing lateral ankle injuries but to date the literature does not show conclusive evidence for management and prevention of recurrent injuries. A new area of research that has not previously been explored is the neurological influence on recurrent injury. Central processing is a recognised form of learning seen in adults and children during normal development and training and more recently acknowledged in injury settings. This phenomenon has also been seen in abnormal states of development such as neglect and chronic pain. Central Nervous System Changes In Recurrent Ankle Injuries In Rugby Player 2 Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are changes in the central nervous system of rugby players with recurrent ankle injuries. Methods: An experimental and control group was used for this cross sectional study. Participants were recruited from the Golden Lions Rugby Union. Forty-six players in total were recruited. The control group consisted of 22 players, and the recurrent injury group consisted of 24 players. Medical and Sports History Questionnaire was administered as well as a battery of four physical test procedures. The questionnaire asked participants to provide information regarding demographics, playing position, training and playing history, current general health, current and previous injury history, and specifically ankle injury history. The four testing procedures were: body image testing, laterality testing, two point discrimination testing and pressure-pain threshold testing. Results: The results were collected and recorded. Between group and within group comparisons were made for the control and recurrent injury groups. From the Medical and Sports History Questionnaire the results indicated that the recurrent injury group participated in a significantly shorter preseason training period compared to the control group. The laterality testing within group analysis had a significant difference, the injured side had a slower recognition time [1.4(1.3-1.6)] compared to the uninjured side [1.3(1.15-1.5) Central Nervous System Changes In Recurrent Ankle Injuries In Rugby Player 3 p<0.01]. Pressure pain threshold testing produced a significant difference for the control group on the ATFL test site and the PTFL site. The PTFL site also demonstrated significant difference in the between group comparison analysis. The results from the two point discrimination testing and the body image testing produced interesting results. The two point discrimination tests performed on the both the recurrent injury group and the control group using within group comparison showed significant differences on the anterior talofibular ligament between the affected and nonaffected limbs. The between group test result were also significant for the injured vs control side at the ATFL site. The affected side showed a poorer ability to differentiate between one and two points, needing a bigger area before two points were distinguished from one. Similarly, body image testing showed significant differences in the within group comparison of total area drawn for the recurrent injury group only. In the recurrent injury group, the drawing of the affected foot was significantly larger than the drawing of the unaffected side. The control group showed no differences between sides. Conclusion: The study recommends that there is a relationship between central nervous system changes in recurrent ankle injuries in the sample group of professional rugby players. The data indicates that preseason length is a factor to be considered in recurrent ankle injuries. The clinical tests focussed specifically on central nervous system changes also produced some illuminating results. The recurrent injury group demonstrated significant difference between injured and uninjured sides in both two point discrimination testing of the ATFL ligaments and in the body image drawing of the foot and ankle. The control group in contrast didn't yield any differences between sides for these same tests. The pressure pain testing and laterality testing producing significant results also indicate the central nervous system involvement in recurrent injury.
- ItemOpen AccessDifferences in five kilometer time trial performance during the recovery period after an ultramarathon race(2013) Benney, Tamlyn; Burgess, Theresa; Lambert, MikeAthletes require an appropriate balance between training, competition stress and recovery to achieve maximal performance. Previous studies have shown that exercise induced muscle damage has a negative influence on endurance running performance, and that these negative effects may be mediated by an increased perception of effort. There is a lack of evidence regarding the effects of ultramarathon distance races on running performance, and the optimal duration of the recovery period before returning to competitive running. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in running performance during the recovery period after an ultramarathon race. The specific objectives were: (a) to determine differences in running performance between the experimental group (runners participating in the 2011 Comrades Marathon) and a control group (distance runners not taking part in the 2011 Comrades Marathon) during the recovery period after an ultramarathon race; (b) to determine the differences in muscle pain, heart rate and perception of effort during a 5 km time trial between groups and over time before, and during the recovery period after an ultramarathon race; and (c) to determine if there were any relationships between prior experience, training history, and running performance during the recovery period following an ultramarathon race.
- ItemOpen AccessDo psychosocial factors predict pain after participation in an ultramarathon race?(2019) Rabbitte, Jessica; Parker, Romy; Burgess, TheresaBACKGROUND Participation in ultramarathon races is increasing globally. Although endurance running has numerous physical and psychological benefits, due to the excessive volume of training and the physical and emotional demands of completing an ultramarathon event, exercise-induced muscle damage and delayed-onset muscle soreness are common. Recovery is central to improving performance and is also a determining factor in return to training. Recovery requires both physical and psychological adaptation. However, there is limited research exploring the effect psychosocial factors play on pain recovery following competition, particularly in endurance runners. More specifically, the role fear avoidance beliefs, pain catastrophizing and self-efficacy play in pain recovery following an ultramarathon race. This information is important to contribute to the limited research on the association between psychosocial factors and recovery from pain in endurance runners. Additionally, this information may provide insight into pain recovery following the Comrades Marathon and reduce time away from running. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial factors (fear avoidance beliefs, pain catastrophizing and self-efficacy beliefs) and pain recovery in runners following the 2017 Comrades Marathon. The specific objectives of the study were to explore whether the psychosocial factors of pain catastrophizing, fear avoidance beliefs and self-efficacy beliefs: a) predict pain in ultramarathon runners after competing in the Comrades Marathon; and b) affect recovery in runners competing in the Comrades Marathon. METHODS This study had a descriptive, longitudinal cohort design. Healthy ultramarathon runners between the ages of 20 and 60 who had qualified for and were intending to compete in the 2017 Comrades Marathon were included in this study. Participants who failed to provide informed consent, reported any signs of illness two weeks prior to the race or any relevant medical or surgical procedure that would prevent participation in the race, were diagnosed with a history of chronic pain or who did not complete the race were excluded. All participants were required to complete a medical and sports history questionnaire and baseline psychosocial questionnaires (Athlete Fear Avoidance Questionnaire, Pain Catastrophizing Questionnaire, Self-Efficacy Questionnaire) two weeks prior to the race at a presentation evening held at participating running clubs. Recovery from pain was recorded by completing a pain logbook (Pain Severity Score of the Brief Pain Inventory) starting the evening of the day on which the Comrades Marathon was run and on each night for nine days following the race, with a total of 10 entries. The questionnaires were validated in previous studies by a panel of experts and were available in both hard copy and electronic format. RESULTS The study sample consisted of 77 participants with a mean age of 41 years, 45 (58%) of whom were male and predominantly English speaking (74%). The majority of participants (78%) had completed the Comrades Marathon previously with 13% being novices to the ultramarathon distance. The average finishing time for the study participants in the 2017 Comrades Marathon was 10 hours and 16 minutes. Seventy percent reported that they had previously used pain-relieving medication after a race. The majority of participants(86%) documented a history of injury, with 55% reporting a current injury. Only 6% reported currently using chronic pain-relieving medication. The baseline psychosocial questionnaires revealed that the majority of the participants demonstrated low fear avoidance beliefs (79%), low pain catastrophizing beliefs (88%) and high self-efficacy beliefs (97%). It took five days from the day of the Comrades Marathon for 75% of the runners to score a pain rating of one or lower in the pain logbook and seven days for 75% of the runners to report no pain. There were no correlations between psychosocial factors and pain recovery in this sample of Comrades runners. There was no correlation between finishing times and pain during recovery. CONCLUSION In conclusion, this study showed that in this sample of ultramarathon runners pre-race psychosocial factors had no effect on recovery following the 2017 Comrades Marathon. High self-efficacy scores, previous experience, higher pain tolerance and better coping strategies in ultramarathon runners may be contributing factors to these results. Future research needs to explore endurance runners who do not complete the race, assess the profile of the ultramarathon race and assess different recovery markers