Earliest stone-tipped projectiles from the Ethiopian Rift date to> 279,000 years ago

 

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dc.contributor.author Sahle, Yonatan en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Hutchings, W Karl en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Braun, David R en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Sealy, Judith C en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Morgan, Leah E en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Negash, Agazi en_ZA
dc.contributor.author Atnafu, Balemwal en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned 2015-11-10T14:48:14Z
dc.date.available 2015-11-10T14:48:14Z
dc.date.issued 2013 en_ZA
dc.identifier.citation Sahle, Y., Hutchings, W. K., Braun, D. R., Sealy, J. C., Morgan, L. E., Negash, A., & Atnafu, B. (2013). Earliest stone-tipped projectiles from the Ethiopian Rift date to> 279,000 years ago. PLoS ONE, 8(11). e78092. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078092 en_ZA
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11427/14833
dc.identifier.uri http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078092
dc.description.abstract Projectile weapons (i.e. those delivered from a distance) enhanced prehistoric hunting efficiency by enabling higher impact delivery and hunting of a broader range of animals while reducing confrontations with dangerous prey species. Projectiles therefore provided a significant advantage over thrusting spears. Composite projectile technologies are considered indicative of complex behavior and pivotal to the successful spread of Homo sapiens . Direct evidence for such projectiles is thus far unknown from >80,000 years ago. Data from velocity-dependent microfracture features, diagnostic damage patterns, and artifact shape reported here indicate that pointed stone artifacts from Ethiopia were used as projectile weapons (in the form of hafted javelin tips) as early as >279,000 years ago. In combination with the existing archaeological, fossil and genetic evidence, these data isolate eastern Africa as a source of modern cultures and biology. en_ZA
dc.language.iso eng en_ZA
dc.publisher Public Library of Science en_ZA
dc.rights This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. en_ZA
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 en_ZA
dc.source PLoS One en_ZA
dc.source.uri http://journals.plos.org/plosone en_ZA
dc.subject.other Paleoanthropology en_ZA
dc.subject.other Archaeology en_ZA
dc.subject.other Human evolution en_ZA
dc.subject.other Pleistocene epoch en_ZA
dc.subject.other Behavior en_ZA
dc.subject.other Africa en_ZA
dc.subject.other Archaeological dating en_ZA
dc.subject.other Morphometry en_ZA
dc.title Earliest stone-tipped projectiles from the Ethiopian Rift date to> 279,000 years ago en_ZA
dc.type Journal Article en_ZA
dc.rights.holder © 2013 Sahle et al en_ZA
uct.type.publication Research en_ZA
uct.type.resource Article en_ZA
dc.publisher.institution University of Cape Town
dc.publisher.faculty Faculty of Science en_ZA
dc.publisher.department Department of Archaeology en_ZA
uct.type.filetype Text
uct.type.filetype Image


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This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.